FOUNDATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence

Series Editors

J. Hendler

H. Kitano B. Nebel

Part I General Methods in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

Knowledge Representation and Classical Logic
Satisfiability Solvers
Description Logics
Constraint Programming
Conceptual Graphs
Nonmonotonic Reasoning
Answer Sets
Belief Revision
Qualitative Modeling
Model-based Problem Solving
Bayesian Networks

Part II Classes of Knowledge and Specialized Representations

Temporal Representation and Reasoning
Qualitative Spatial Representation and Reasoning
Physical Reasoning
Reasoning about Knowledge and Belief
Situation Calculus
Event Calculus
Temporal Action Logics
Nonmonotonic Causal Logic

Part III Knowledge Representation in Applications

Knowledge Representation and Question Answering
The Semantic Web: Webizing Knowledge Representation
Automated Planning
Cognitive Robotics
Multi-Agent Systems
Knowledge Engineering

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AMSTERDAM–BOSTON–HEIDELBERG–LONDON–NEW YORK–OXFORD

PARIS–SAN DIEGO–SAN FRANCISCO–SINGAPORE–SYDNEY–TOKYO

Handbook of Knowledge Representation

Edited by

Frank van Harmelen

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands

Vladimir Lifschitz

University of Texas at Austin

USA

Bruce Porter

University of Texas at Austin

USA

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AMSTERDAM–BOSTON–HEIDELBERG–LONDON–NEW YORK–OXFORD

PARIS–SAN DIEGO–SAN FRANCISCO–SINGAPORE–SYDNEY–TOKYO

Elsevier

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First edition 2008

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Preface

Knowledge Representation and Reasoning is at the heart of the great challenge of Artificial Intelligence: to understand the nature of intelligence and cognition so well that computers can be made to exhibit human-like abilities. As early as 1958, John McCarthy contemplated Artificial Intelligence systems that could exercise common sense. From this and other early work, researchers gained the conviction that (artificial) intelligence could be formalized as symbolic reasoning with explicit representations of knowledge, and that the core research challenge is to figure out how to represent knowledge in computers and to use it algorithmically to solve problems.

Fifty years later, this book surveys the substantial body of scientific and engineering insights that constitute the field of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. Advances have been made on three fronts. First, researchers have explored general methods of knowledge representation and reasoning, addressing fundamental issues that cut across application domains. Second, researchers have developed specialized methods of knowledge representation and reasoning to handle core domains, such as time, space, causation and action. Third, researchers have tackled important applications of knowledge representation and reasoning, including query answering, planning and the Semantic Web. Accordingly, the book is divided into three sections to cover these themes.

Part I focuses on general methods for representing knowledge in Artificial Intelligence systems. It begins with background on classical logic and theorem proving, then turns to new approaches that extend classical logic—for example, to handle qualitative or uncertain information—and to improve its computational tractability.

  • Chapter 1 provides background for many of the subsequent chapters by surveying classical logic and methods of automated reasoning.
  • Chapter 2 describes the remarkable success of satisfiability (SAT) solvers. Researchers have found that this type of automated reasoning can be used for an ever increasing set of practical applications and that it can be made surprisingly efficient.
  • Chapter 3 reviews research in Description Logics, which provides methods for representing and reasoning with terminological knowledge. Description logics are the core of the representation language of the Semantic Web.
  • Chapter 4 describes constraint programming, a powerful paradigm for solving combinatorial search problems. This style of knowledge representation and reasoning draws together a wide range of techniques from artificial intelligence, operations research, algorithms and graph theory.

vii

viii Preface

  • Chapter 5 reviews the influential work on Conceptual Graphs. This structured representation provides an expressive language and powerful reasoning methods that are essential for applications such as Natural Language Understanding. • Chapter 6 introduces nonmonotonic logics, which deal with complications related to handling exceptions to general rules. These logics are called “nonmonotonic” because they describe the retraction of information from a knowledge base when additional exceptions are taken into account.
  • Chapter 7 builds on the previous one by describing Answer Set logic, which neatly handles default rules and exceptions, along with the nonmonotonic reasoning that they engender. This form of logic also supports reasoning about the causal effects of actions—another key feature of common sense.
  • Chapter 8 continues this theme with a survey of techniques for Belief Revision, that is, how an agent changes its knowledge base in light of new information that contradicts a previous belief.
  • Chapter 9 explains the role of qualitative models of continuous systems. These models enable another key feature of common sense: reasoning with incomplete information. This form of reasoning can compute, for example, the possible future states of a system, which is important for numerous tasks, such as diagnosis and tutoring.
  • Chapter 10 demonstrates that these theories and techniques establish the basis for problem solvers that exploit an explicit model of the behavior of systems for tasks such as design, testing, and diagnosis. Being based on first principles knowledge and inference engines with a formal logical foundation, rather than experience tied to specific instances and situations, such model-based problem solvers achieve the competence and robustness needed for industrial applications of knowledge representation and reasoning techniques.
  • Chapter 11 confronts the unavoidable problem of uncertainty in real world domains, and surveys the extensive research on Bayesian networks as a method for modeling and reasoning with uncertain beliefs.

Part II delves into the special challenges of representing and reasoning with some core domains of knowledge, including time, space, causation and action. These challenges are ubiquitous across application areas, so solutions must be general and composable.

  • Chapter 12 discusses ways to represent the temporal aspects of an ever-changing world. In a theme that recurs throughout this section, this raises a variety of interesting ontological issues—such as whether time should be modeled with points or intervals, and at what level of granularity—along with the pragmatic consequences of these decisions.
  • Chapter 13 surveys qualitative representations of space—including topology, orientation, shape, size and distance—as well as reasoning methods appropriPreface ix

ate to each. Although no single theory covers these topics comprehensively, researchers have produced a powerful tool kit.

  • Chapter 14 builds on the two previous chapters, and also on research on qualitative modeling, to tackle the general problem of physical reasoning. Two important domain theories are developed (for liquids and solid objects), and the key issue of shifting between alternative models is explored.
  • Chapter 15 surveys representations of an agent’s knowledge and beliefs, including propositions about the knowledge state of other agents (e.g., “Tom believes that Mary knows...”). This work nicely extends to handle common knowledge and distributed knowledge within a community of agents.
  • Chapter 16 surveys the long history of the “situation calculus”—a knowledge representation designed to handle dynamic worlds. As first defined by McCarthy and Hayes, a situation is “a complete state of the universe at an instance of time”. Because situations are first-order objects that can be quantified over, this framework has proven to be a strong foundation for reasoning about change. • Chapter 17 describes the Event Calculus as an alternative to the Situation Calculus with some additional nice features. In particular, the event calculus facilitates representing continuous events, nondeterministic effects, events with duration, triggered events, and more.
  • Chapter 18 continues the development of representation languages designed for dynamic worlds by introducing Temporal Action Logics. This family of languages is especially well suited for reasoning about persistence, i.e., features of the world that carry forward through time, unchanged, until an action affects them. It facilitates the representation of nondeterministic actions, actions with duration, concurrent actions and delayed effects of actions, partly due to its use of explicit time, and it tightly couples an automated planner to the formalism. • Chapter 19 focuses on Nonmonotonic Causal Logic, which handles dynamic worlds using a strong solution to the frame problem. This logic starts with assumption that everything has a cause: either a previous action or inertia (persistence). This results in nice formalizations for key issues such as ramifications, implied action preconditions, and concurrent interacting effects of actions.

Part III surveys important applications of knowledge representation and reasoning. The application areas span the breadth of Artificial Intelligence to include question answering, the Semantic Web, planning, robotics and multi-agent systems. Each application draws extensively on the research results described in Parts I and II.

  • Chapter 20 surveys research in question answering systems. These systems answer questions given a corpus of relevant documents and, in some cases, a knowledge base of common sense information. The system’s challenge is to select relevant passages of text (an information retrieval task), interpret them (a natural language understanding task) and infer an answer to the question (a reasoning task).

x Preface

  • Chapter 21 reviews progress on the Semantic Web: an extension of the World Wide Web in which content is expressed in a formal language to enable software agents to find, integrate and reason with it. This raises numerous challenges, including scaling knowledge representation methods to the size of the Web. • Chapter 22 surveys advances in automated planning, which make these systems considerably more powerful than “classical planners” from the early years of Artificial Intelligence. The new framework supports, for example, nondeterministic actions and partial observability, which are important attributes of real-world domains. • Chapter 23 extends knowledge representation and reasoning in a new direction: cognitive robotics. The challenge in this application is that the robots’ world is dynamic and incompletely known, which requires re-thinking traditional approaches to AI tasks, such as planning, as well as coupling high-level reasoning with low-level perception.
  • Chapter 24 surveys research on multi-agent systems, in which it is important that each agent represent and reason about the other agents in the environment. This is especially challenging when the agents have different, or worse— conflicting—goals.
  • Chapter 25 describes tools and techniques for knowledge engineering: how to acquire the knowledge that can be expressed in the formalisms described in the other chapters.

Together, these 25 chapters, organized in the three sections “General Methods”, “Specialized Representations” and “Applications”, provide a unique survey of the best that Knowledge Representation has achieved, written by researchers who have helped to shape the field. We hope that students, researchers and practitioners in all areas of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science will find this book to be a useful resource.

Acknowledgement

Early drafts of each chapter were reviewed by authors of other chapters, and by these research colleagues: Krzysztof Apt, Paolo Ferraris, Enrico Giunchiglia, Joohyung Lee, Antonis Kakas, Benjamin Kuipers, David Poole, and Mary-Anne Williams. We are grateful to them all.

Frank Harmelen

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Vladimir Lifschitz

University of Texas at Austin

Bruce Porter

University of Texas at Austin July 2007

Editors

Frank van Harmelen

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands

Vladimir Lifschitz

University of Texas at Austin

USA

Bruce Porter

University of Texas at Austin

USA

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Contributors

Franz Baader

Technische Universität Dresden Germany

Marcello Balduccini

Texas Tech University

USA

Chitta Baral

Arizona State University

USA

Gerhard Brewka

University of Leipzig Germany

Alessandro Cimatti

ITC/IRST

Italy

Anthony G. Cohn

University of Leeds

UK

Adnan Darwiche

University of California, Los Angeles

USA

Ernest Davis

New York University

USA

Patrick Doherty

Linköping University Sweden

Michael Fisher

University of Liverpool

UK

Kenneth D. Forbus

Northwestern University

USA

Michael Gelfond

Texas Tech University

USA

Carla P. Gomes

Cornell University

USA

Jim Hendler

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

USA

Ian Horrocks

University of Oxford

UK

Henry Kautz

University of Rochester

USA

Jonas Kvarnström

Linköping University Sweden

Gerhard Lakemeyer

RWTH Aachen University Germany

Hector Levesque

University of Toronto Canada

Yuliya Lierler

University of Texas at Austin

USA

Vladimir Lifschitz

University of Texas at Austin

USA

Fangzhen Lin

Hong Kong University of Science and

Technology

Hong Kong

Contributors

Leora Morgenstern

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center USA

Yoram Moses

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology Israel

Erik T. Mueller

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center USA

Ilkka Niemelä

Helsinki University of Technology

Finland

Pavlos Peppas

University of Patras

Greece

Marco Pistore

Università di Trento Italy

David Plaisted

University of North Carolina at Chapel

Hill

USA

Jochen Renz

The Australian National University Australia

Francesca Rossi

University of Padova

Italy

Ashish Sabharwal

Cornell University

USA

Ulrike Sattler

University of Manchester

UK

Guus Schreiber

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands

Bart Selman

Cornell University

USA

John F. Sowa

VivoMind Intelligence, Inc.

USA

Peter Struss

Technische Universität München Germany

Paolo Traverso

ITC/IRST

Italy

Mirosław Truszczynski´

University of Kentucky

USA

Hudson Turner

University of Minnesota, Duluth

USA

Peter van Beek

University of Waterloo Canada

Frank van Harmelen

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam The Netherlands

Wiebe van der Hoek

University of Liverpool

UK

Toby Walsh

University of New South Wales

Australia

Michael Wooldridge

University of Liverpool

UK

Author Index

Abadi, M. 528, 530, 532, 535 Allen, J.F., see Moore, R.C. 891, 909

Abadi, M., see Burrows, M. 60 Allen, J.F., see Tate, A. 553

Abbott, K. 366 Allen, J.S., see Mallot, H.A. 551

Abdennadher, S., see Frühwirth, T.W. 66, 182 Allen, P.G., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Abel, D., see Clementini, D. 382 Aloul, F.A. 105

Abel, D., see Clementini, E. 566 Alshawi, H. 784

Aben, M., see van Harmelen, F. 935 Alur, R. 517, 518, 524–526, 533, 910, 913

Abrams, F., see Le Clair, S. 383 Amgoud, L. 277

Abramsky, S., see Stirling, C. 529 Amilhastre, J. 202

Abramson, M., see Kim, P. 453 Amir, E. 62, 64, 875

Acciarri, A. 139 Amir, E., see de Salvo Braz, R. 493 Achlioptas, D. 102, 111, 112 Amir, E., see MacCartney, B. 65

Addanki, S. 616 Amir, E., see Ramachandran, D. 63

Addanki, S., see Joskowicz, L. 615 Anbulagan, 107

Adida, B., see Youn, P. 60 Anbulagan, see Li, C.M. 89, 115

Adorf, H. 107 Andersen, S.K., see Andreassen, S. 489

Agell, N., see Rovira, X. 384 Andersen, S.K., see Shachter, R.D. 477, 478

Agell, N., see Trave-Massuyes, L. 369 Anderson, C.R., see Weld, D.S. 861

Aggoun, A. 184

Anderson, R., see Youn, P. 60

Aggoun, A., see Dincbas, M. 199

Andreassen, S. 489

Agotnes, T. 916

Andréka, H. 145

Ågotnes, T., see Jamroga, W. 918

Andrews, P.B. 20, 22

Agre, P.E., see Rosenschein, S.J. 906

Andrews, P.B., see Bishop, M. 58

Aiello, L.C., see Borgo, S. 555, 558, 570

Angele, J., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Aiello, L.C., see Cohn, A.G. 571

Anjaneyulu, K., see Ma, J. 519

Aiello, L.C., see Gustafsson, J. 711, 712, 735

Anjewierden, A.A., see Schreiber, A.Th. 930,

Aiello, M. 583

931, 934, 941, 942

Aiello, M., see Bennett, B. 558

Ansotegui, C. 119

Aiello, M., see Renz, J. 570

Aït-Kaci, H., see Bachmair, L. 48 Ansotegui, C., see Sabharwal, A. 119

Aji, S.M. 488 Antoniou, G. 242, 276

Akhmatova, E. 806 Antoniou, G., see Flouris, G. 353

Akkermans, J.M., see Schreiber, A.Th. 930, Antoniou, G., see Hindriks, K.V. 905

931, 934, 941, 942 Appelt, D.E., see Hobbs, J.R. 61, 70

Akman, V. 700, 761 Apt, K.R. 182, 293, 295, 296

Al-Taha, K.K., see Egenhofer, M.J. 582 Apt, K.R., see Halpern, J.Y. 255

Alami, R., see Ingrand, F.F. 870 Aragon, C., see Johnson, D.S. 108

Alami, R., see Shanahan, M. 683, 701 Aragon, C.R., see Johnson, D.S. 188

Alava, M., see Seitz, S. 111 Araujo, S., see Salles, P. 384

Albacete, P., see Jordan, P. 386 Aravindan, C. 66

Alchourron, C. 317, 319, 322, 324, 331 Arbaretier, E., see Picardi, C. 456

Alchourrón, C.E. 902 Areces, C. 145, 146, 155, 528

Alekhnovich, M. 101, 103 Armoni, R. 534

Allen, D. 479, 480 Arnborg, S. 476

Allen, D., see Chavira, M. 483, 484 Arnborg, S.A. 475

Allen, J.F. 191, 200, 519, 522, 523, 582, 746, Arons, T., see Pnueli, A. 532

786, 909, 939 Artale, A. 534, 535, 939

947

Artikis, A. 761

Artobolevsky, I. 613

Arts, T. 41

Asher, N. 558, 563, 564, 572

Atkins, B., see Fillmore, C. 814

Audemard, G. 533

Aumann, R.J. 622, 630, 643, 917

Aurell, E. 112

Aurnague, M. 554, 563, 570

Autexier, S., see Siekmann, J. 22

Auton, L., see Crawford, J.M. 110 Aviles, G., see Lacy, L. 168

Baader, F. 43, 54, 55, 71, 78–80, 82, 135,

138–140, 143, 144, 146, 147, 149, 150,

154–156, 159, 161–163, 165, 169–171, 243,

247, 249, 252, 528

Baader, F., see Baumgartner, P. 29

Baaz, M. 517

Babovich, Y. 286, 297

Bacchus, F. 89, 120, 478, 532, 666, 747, 842,

872, 878, 881

Bacchus, F., see Lam, W. 497

Bacchus, F., see Petrick, R. 861

Bacchus, F., see Samulowitz, H. 119

Bacchus, F., see Sang, T. 120

Bachmair, L. 38, 42, 43, 48, 53, 530

Backes, M., see Sprenger, C. 60

Backstrom, C., see Jonsson, P. 191

Baclawski, K. 62

Badulescu, A., see Moldovan, D. 782

Bahar, R.I. 479

Baher, J., see Forbus, K.D. 372, 386

Bailey-Kellogg, C., see Ramakrishnan, N. 384

Bailley-Kellogg, C. 374, 384

Baker, A.B. 151, 265, 654, 694

Baker, C. 387

Balas, G., see Karsai, G. 438, 458

Balbiani, B. 569

Balbiani, P. 552, 567, 569, 575

Balder, J.R., see van Harmelen, F. 935, 936

Balduccini, M. 286, 304, 307, 309, 453

Balduccini, M., see Nogueira, M. 70, 286, 306

Balestreri, G., see Mayer, M.C. 532

Ball, T. 534

Ballantyne, A.M., see Lankford, D. 52

Ballard, B.W., see Devambu, P. 166

Baltag, A. 643, 891, 892

Banieqbal, B. 527

Bao, J., see Wang, Y. 65

Baptista, L. 104, 115

Baptista, L., see Lynce, I. 117 Baptiste, P. 202

Bar-Haim, R. 806

Bar-Hillel, Y. 67, 70

Bar-Yehuda, R., see Becker, A. 478

Baral, C. 286, 288, 290, 292, 293, 303, 307,

309, 310, 349, 513, 522, 532, 687, 698, 700,

709, 793, 796, 803, 815, 863, 871, 881

Baral, C., see Gebser, M. 286

Baral, C., see Son, T.C. 862, 875

Baral, C., see Tari, L. 782, 804

Barbeau, M., see Kabanza, F. 842, 862

Barendregt, H.-P., see Toyama, Y. 50

Barker, K., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Barringer, H. 520–522, 532, 905

Barringer, H., see Banieqbal, B. 527

Barrow, H.G. 60

Barry, M., see Nogueira, M. 70, 286, 306

Bartels, C., see Bilmes, J. 484

Bartolini, C., see Farrell, A.D.H. 701

Baselice, S. 297, 815

Basin, D.A., see Bundy, A. 57

Basin, D.A., see Sprenger, C. 60

Batt, G., see de Jong, H. 384 Baudinet, M. 532

Bauer, G., see Nipkow, T. 20

Baumert, L., see Golomb, S. 185, 187

Baumgartner, P. 29, 59

Baxter, D., see Curtis, J. 813

Bayardo Jr., R.J. 89, 97, 99, 120

Beame, P.W. 100, 101, 103, 104, 111, 120

Beame, P.W., see Achlioptas, D. 102

Beame, P.W., see Sang, T. 120, 483, 484

Bear, J., see Hobbs, J.R. 70

Beaumont, M., see Thornton, J.R. 530

Bechhofer, S. 168, 169

Becker, A. 478

Beer, I. 534

Beeson, P., see Kuipers, B.J. 583

Behrmann, G. 533

Beldiceanu, N. 184

Beldiceanu, N., see Aggoun, A. 184

Beldiceanu, N., see Carlsson, M. 193

Belinfante, J.G.F. 58

Bell, C.G. 60

Bell, D. 366

Bellazzi, R. 366

Ben-Ari, M. 146

Ben-David, S. 534

Ben-David, S., see Beer, I. 534

Ben-Eliyahu, R. 249, 299

Bendix, P.B., see Knuth, D.E. 43, 47, 48

Benedetti, M. 118–120

Benferhat, S. 276, 349, 353

Bengtsson, J. 517

Benhamou, F. 200

Bennett, B. 534, 555, 558, 565, 570, 571, 574,

615, 684

Bennett, B., see Cohn, A.G. 381, 555, 563,

564, 571

Bennett, B., see Cristani, M. 568, 571 Bennett, B., see Santos, P. 570, 571 Benzmüller, C., see Siekmann, J. 22

Berardi, D. 166

Berens, M., see Baral, C. 286

Berger, F., see Picardi, C. 456

Berners-Lee, T. 823, 836

Berners-Lee, T., see Fielding, J. 827

Bernhard, O., see Vatcheva, I. 443

Bernholtz, O. 156

Berthier, F., see Dincbas, M. 199

Bertoli, P. 842, 862, 863, 881

Bertoli, P., see Cimatti, A. 842, 862

Beschta, A. 446, 452

Besnard, P. 242, 277

Bessière, C. 183, 187

Bessiere, C. 201

Bessiere, C., see Gomes, C.P. 113

Bessière, C., see Petit, T. 197

Best, E., see Bernholtz, O. 156

Bettini, C. 517, 535

Beyer, D. 533

Biacino, L. 555, 562, 563

Bibel, W. 20, 36

Bibeland, W., see Fischer, B. 59

Bidoit, N. 253, 309

Biere, A. 89, 118, 119, 533

Biere, A., see Prasad, M.R. 533

Billen, R., see Clementini, E. 569

Billington, D., see Antoniou, G. 276

Billon, J.-P. 29

Bilmes, J. 484

Binder, J. 484

Binder, J., see Russell, S.J. 495

Birkhoff, G. 44

Birmingham, W.P., see Schreiber, A.Th. 931,

940

Bishop, C. 496

Bishop, M. 56, 58

Bishop, M., see Andrews, P.B. 20

Bistarelli, S. 194–196

Biswas, G. 385, 438

Biswas, G., see Karsai, G. 438, 458

Biswas, G., see Mosterman, P. 373, 380, 430

Biswas, G., see Narasimhan, S. 438, 458

Bittner, T. 382, 572

Bjäreland, M. 712

Bjesse, P. 89

Bjørner, N. 532

Blackburn, P. 157, 520, 528, 784, 793, 890

Blackburn, P., see Areces, C. 146, 155, 528 Blackburn, P., see Hodkinson, I. 514

Blair, H., see Apt, K.R. 293, 296

Blair, H., see Trybulec, A. 22, 58

Blass, A. 527

Blum, A.L. 861

Bobrovnikoff, D., see Hayes, P.J. 65

Bobrow, D.G. 370, 614, 617, 684

Bobrow, D.G., see Bell, D. 366

Bobrow, D.G., see de Kleer, J.D. 601, 614

Bobrow, D.G., see Forbus, K.D. 601, 602, 614

Bobrow, D.G., see Kuipers, B.J. 614

Bobrow, D.G., see Woods, W.A. 138, 213

Bochman, A. 242, 761

Bockmayr, A. 55

Boddy, M.S., see Goldman, R.P. 862

Bodenreider, O., see Golbreich, C. 168

Böhm, M. 94

Bokor, J.L., see Ferguson, R.W. 554

Bolc, L. 514

Boley, H., see Hirtle, D. 831, 836

Bollobás, B. 111

Bolohan, O., see Moldovan, D. 782

Bolotov, A. 530

Bon, M., see Youn, P. 60

Bonacina, M.P. 20

Bonanno, G. 918

Bonarini, A. 367

Bonatti, P.A. 249

Bonatti, P.A., see Baselice, S. 297, 815

Bonatti, P.A., see Subrahmanian, V.S. 905

Bondarenko, A. 277

Bonet, M.L. 101, 103

Bontempi, G., see Bonarini, A. 367

Booker, J.M., see Meyer, M.A. 942

Boose, J.H. 942

Booth, R. 346

Booth, R., see Meyer, T. 169

Borgida, A. 139, 144, 166

Borgida, A., see Baader, F. 169

Borgida, A., see Brachman, R.J. 169

Borgida, A., see Patel-Schneider, P.F. 138

Borgo, S. 555, 558, 570, 571

Borgs, C., see Bollobás, B. 111

Borillo, A., see Aurnague, M. 570

Bos, J. 62, 806–809

Bos, J., see Blackburn, P. 784, 793

Bose, N.K., see Buchberger, B. 55

Bosna˘ cki, D., see van der Hoek, W.˘ 909

Bouajjani, A., see Tripakis, S. 533

Boufkhad, Y., see Dubois, O. 111

Boutilier, C. 345, 353, 471, 480, 843, 879

Boutilier, G., see Hoey, J. 471, 479

Bouwer, A. 385

Bowen, K.A., see Eshghi, K. 674, 699, 701 Bowen, K.A., see Gelfond, M. 698, 793

Bowling, M.H., see Jensen, R.M. 862

Bowman, H. 517, 524, 530

Bowman, H., see Gómez, R. 530

Boyer, R. 57, 58, 60

Boyle, J., see Wos, L. 34

Bozdogan, H. 497

Bozsak, E. 825

Bracciali, A. 699

Brachman, R.J. 67, 90, 136, 138, 169, 174,

177–179, 934, 938

Brachman, R.J., see Devambu, P. 166

Brachman, R.J., see Levesque, H.J. 90

Brachman, R.J., see Patel-Schneider, P.F. 138

Brachman, R.J., see Randell, D.A. 558, 563

Brachman, R.J., see Sandewall, E. 714

Brachman, R.J., see Schmidt-Schauß, M. 138

Bradley, E. 374

Brady, J.M., see Nicholson, A. 472

Brafman, R. 842, 861

Brafman, R., see Hoffmann, J. 842, 861

Brahm, U., see Weidenbach, C. 59 Brand, D. 38, 41

Brandt, S. 155, 161, 163, 165, 169

Brandt, S., see Baader, F. 139, 146, 155, 161, 163, 165, 169

Bransford, J., see Biswas, G. 385

Brat, G., see Visser, W. 534

Bratko, I. 65

Bratman, M.E. 781, 894, 896, 897

Brauer, W., see Nebel, B. 574, 579

Brauer, W., see Renz, J. 582

Braunstein, A. 112

Brayton, R.K., see Stephan, P.R. 89

Brazdil, P., see Pacheco, J. 570

Bredeweg, B. 367, 407, 431

Bredeweg, B., see Bouwer, A. 385

Bredeweg, B., see de Koning, K. 386

Bredeweg, B., see Machado, B. 385

Bredeweg, B., see Nuttle, T. 384

Bredeweg, B., see Salles, P. 384, 385

Breeman, J., see Picardi, C. 456

Breese, J.S. 491

Breese, J.S., see Wellman, M.P. 490

Brélaz, D. 187

Bresciani, P. 139, 150

Bresolin, D. 516

Breuker, J.A., see de Koning, K. 386

Breuker, J.A., see Wielinga, B.J. 934

Brewka, G. 242, 252, 270, 276, 286, 353,

416, 684

Brewka, G., see Gebser, M. 286

Brglez, F., see Li, X.Y. 89, 107

Brickley, D. 824

Broder, A. 111

Broekstra, J. 824

Brokowski, M., see Forbus, K.D. 372, 386

Brooks, D.R. 286

Brooks, R.A. 67

Brown, C.A., see Purdom Jr., P.W. 110

Brown, C.E., see Andrews, P.B. 20

Brown, F.M. 684

Brown, F.M., see Lifschitz, V. 735, 737

Brown, J.S., see de Kleer, J.D. 366, 371, 372,

375, 380, 406, 601, 614

Brown, M.A. 900, 909, 910

Brown, T.L. 617

Browne, A., see Bjørner, N. 532

Brüning, S., see Schaub, T. 249

Bruns, H.T. 582

Bruynooghe, M., see Benhamou, F. 200

Bruynooghe, M., see Denecker, M. 674, 699,

701

Bruynooghe, M., see Kowalski, R.A. 684

Bruynooghe, M., see Missiaen, L. 701

Bruynooghe, M., see Pelov, N. 286

Bryant, R. 21

Bryant, R.E. 533, 862

Bryant, R.E., see Velev, M.N. 89

Buccafurri, F. 286

Buchanan, B.G. 617

Buchanan, B.G., see Wielinga, B.J. 934

Buchberger, B. 55

Buchheit, M. 139, 149

Buchheit, M., see Baader, F. 147, 149

Buckland, L.P., see Voorhees, E.M. 73

Buekenhout, F., see Gerla, G. 558, 562, 563

Bulatov, A.A. 191

Bull, R.A. 520

Bundy, A. 34, 57

Bundy, A., see QED Group, 58

Bundy, A., see Stickel, M.E. 59

Burch, J.R. 22, 533

Bürckert, H.-J., see Baader, F. 149

Burckert, H.-J., see Nebel, B. 200

Buresh-Oppenheim, J. 101 Burgard, W. 881

Burgess, J.P. 519–521, 531

Burke, M., see Cohen, P.R. 62, 73

Burrough, P., see Clementini, E. 571

Burrough, P., see Cohn, A.G. 571, 572

Burrough, P., see Schlieder, C. 566

Burrows, M. 60

Burstall, R.M. 666

Bursten, B., see Brown, T.L. 617

Butler, G., see Lankford, D. 52

Buvac, S. 63

Bylander, T. 876

Byun, Y.-T., see Kuipers, B.J. 553

Cabedo, L.M., see Escrig, M.T. 583

Cabral, J., see Matuszek, C. 62, 63, 71

Cadoli, M. 118, 266

Caferra, R. 22

Calvanese, D. 135, 139, 146, 155, 166, 169

Calvanese, D., see Acciarri, A. 139

Calvanese, D., see Baader, F. 55, 135, 139,

144, 147, 149, 150, 154, 169–171, 528

Calvanese, D., see Berardi, D. 166

Campari, I., see Edwards, G. 570

Campari, I., see Egenhofer, M.J. 582 Campari, I., see Freksa, C. 382 Campari, I., see Zimmermann, K. 570

Campbell, J. 761

Campbell, K.E., see Spackman, K.A. 165

Cantwell, J., see Hansson, S.-O. 347, 348

Carbone, A. 881

Carlson, G.N., see Schubert, L.K. 654, 694,

710, 712

Carlson, L. 554

Carlsson, M. 193

Carney, K., see Forbus, K.D. 385

Carreté, N.P., see Schlieder, C. 566

Cartwright, R. 562

Casati, R. 557, 558, 562, 572

Casati, R., see Varzi, A.C. 558

Caseau, Y. 202

Castelfranchi, C., see van der Hoek, W. 906

Castellini, C. 861

Castillo, E. 489

Catino, C. 372

Cavali, A. 530

Cavazza, M. 386

Cavazza, M., see Hartley, S. 386

Caviness, B.F. 55

Cayrol, C., see Amgoud, L. 277

Cayrol, C., see Benferhat, S. 276

Ceccato, S. 213

Cerrito, S., see Mayer, M.C. 525

Cervesato, I. 672

Cha, B. 107

Chai, D. 105

Chan, H. 484, 489

Chancellor, K., see Baral, C. 286

Chandra, A.K. 517

Chandrasekara, B., see Glasgow, J. 583

Chandrasekaran, B. 930, 934

Chandrasekaran, B., see DeCuyper, J. 609, 617

Chandrasekaran, B., see Forbus, K.D. 382

Chandrasekaran, B., see Gardin, F. 609, 616

Chandy, K.M. 637

Chang, C. 34, 337

Chang, E., see Sidhu, A. 168

Chang, K.-C., see Fung, R. 486

Chantler, M. 425

Chaochen, Z. 524, 525

Chapman, V., see Forbus, K.D. 383, 554

Charniak, E. 73, 780

Charniak, E., see Goldman, R.P. 491

Chatila, R., see Ingrand, F.F. 870

Chaudhri, V.K., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Chaudhri, V.K., see Stickel, M.E. 59, 61, 62

Chavez, M.R. 486

Chavira, M. 480–484, 493

Chayes, J.T., see Bollobás, B. 111

Cheeseman, P. 110

Cheeseman, P., see Frank, J. 107, 108 Chein, M. 235

Chellas, B.F. 254, 256, 645, 890, 904, 905

Chen, H. 113

Chen, S., see Zhang, D. 353

Chen, W. 218, 285, 296

Chen, Z.-Z. 581

Cheng, B.M.W. 192

Cheng, J. 485, 486

Chesñevar, C.I. 277

Chevriaux, Y. 553

Chickering, D.M. 496

Chickering, D.M., see Heckerman, D.E. 497

Chickering, D.M., see Horvitz, E.J. 117

Choi, K.M.F., see Cheng, B.M.W. 192

Cholewinski, P.´ 249

Chomicki, J. 535

Chomicki, J., see Calvanese, D. 166

Chomsky, C., see Green, B. 780

Chopra, A. 761

Chopra, S. 348

Chopra, S., see Peppas, P. 353

Chou, S.C. 55

Chou, T. 376

Choueiry, B. 616

Chow, C.K. 497

Christodoulakis, D., see Stavrinoudis, D. 353

Church, A. 15

Chvátal, V. 110, 111

Cicekli, N.K. 699, 701

Cimatti, A. 533, 842, 862

Cimatti, A., see Audemard, G. 533

Cimatti, A., see Bertoli, P. 842, 862, 863, 881

Cimatti, A., see Biere, A. 89, 533

Cimino, J., see Kershenbaum, A. 168 Clancey, W.J. 930

Claramunt, C., see Chevriaux, Y. 553

Clark, C. 782, 783, 786, 790, 792

Clark, H.H. 622, 630

Clark, K. 12, 285, 295, 296, 761

Clark, K.L. 654, 684

Clark, P., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Clark, P., see Hayes, P.J. 65

Clarke, B.L. 558, 563, 564

Clarke, E.M. 526, 533, 644, 862, 908, 909,

913

Clarke, E.M., see Biere, A. 89, 533

Clarke, E.M., see Burch, J.R. 22, 533

Clarke, E.M., see Cimatti, A. 533

Clarke, E.M., see Emerson, E.A. 525

Cleary, J.G. 199

Clegg, M. 111

Clementini, D. 382

Clementini, E. 382, 566, 568–572

Clementini, E., see Egenhofer, M.J. 565

Clementini, E., see Hernández, D. 568, 569

Clocksin, W.F. 897

Clulow, J., see Youn, P. 60

Coghill, G., see Chantler, M. 425

Coghill, G., see King, R. 384

Cohen, B., see Selman, B. 89, 107–109

Cohen, D., see Cooper, M. 189

Cohen, D.A. 193

Cohen, D.A., see Jeavons, P. 190

Cohen, P.R. 62, 73, 781, 891, 893–895, 897,

903

Cohen, P.R., see Bratman, M.E. 894

Cohen, P.R., see Levesque, H.J. 893

Cohn, A.G. 381–383, 513, 524, 553, 555,

558–560, 562–564, 570–572, 584

Cohn, A.G., see Bennett, B. 570, 615

Cohn, A.G., see Cristani, M. 568, 571

Cohn, A.G., see Cui, Z. 582

Cohn, A.G., see Davis, E. 571, 575

Cohn, A.G., see Doherty, P. 710, 711

Cohn, A.G., see Fernyhough, J. 383, 554, 583

Cohn, A.G., see Galata, A. 583

Cohn, A.G., see Gooday, J.M. 554

Cohn, A.G., see Gotts, N.M. 555, 557, 563,

564

Cohn, A.G., see Hazarika, S.M. 582

Cohn, A.G., see Isli, A. 566

Cohn, A.G., see Lehmann, F. 553, 565, 572

Cohn, A.G., see Needham, C. 383

Cohn, A.G., see Randell, D.A. 558, 563–565,

574, 576

Cohn, A.G., see Renz, J. 565

Cohn, A.G., see Van de Weghe, N. 582

Collas, S., see Picardi, C. 456

Collins, A.M., see Woods, W.A. 138, 213

Collins, G., see Pryor, L. 861

Collins, J.W. 435, 438, 609, 616

Colmerauer, A. 198, 199, 285

Colón, M., see Bjørner, N. 532

Comas, D., see Mark, D.M. 582

Comon, H. 48, 57

Comyn, G., see Kowalski, R.A. 701

Condotta, J.-F., see Balbiani, P. 552, 567, 575

Condotta, J.-F., see Ligozat, G. 580

Connolly, D., see Berners-Lee, T. 836

Console, L. 432

Console, L., see Hamscher, W. 458, 461–464

Console, L., see Picardi, C. 456

Constable, R.L. 22

Cook, S.A. 91, 100, 110

Cook, W. 105

Cooper, F.G. 474

Cooper, G.F. 497

Cooper, G.F., see Chavez, M.R. 486

Cooper, G.F., see Horvitz, E.J. 477, 478

Cooper, G.F., see Shwe, M. 489

Cooper, G.F., see Suermondt, H.J. 477, 478

Cooper, M. 189, 197

Cooper, M., see Jeavons, P. 190

Cordier, M.O., see Biswas, G. 438

Cordier, M.O., see Trave-Massuyes, L. 430, 446

Cordier, M.-O., see Pencole, Y. 430

Corneil, D.G., see Arnborg, S. 476

Cornet, R., see Schlobach, S. 169

Cote, R.A., see Spackman, K.A. 165

Coullard, C.R., see Cook, W. 105

Courcoubetis, C., see Alur, R. 518, 525, 533

Cowell, R.G. 477

Cowell, R.G., see Lauritzen, S.L. 477

Crato, N., see Gomes, C.P. 113, 116, 187

Craven, R. 761

Craven, R., see Sergot, M. 761

Crawford, J.M. 105, 110, 193

Cremers, A.B., see Burgard, W. 881

Cremonini, R., see Addanki, S. 616

Cresswell, M.J., see Hughes, G.E. 254, 256,

258, 627, 628

Cristani, M. 568, 571

Crocco, G., see Lindstrom, S. 353

Crow, J. 450

Cuenca-Grau, B. 825

Cuenca Grau, B., see Sirin, E. 147, 168

Cui, Z. 582

Cui, Z., see Cohn, A.G. 563, 564

Cui, Z., see Randell, D.A. 563–565, 574, 576 Curtis, J. 813

Dagan, I. 806, 813

Dagan, I., see Bar-Haim, R. 806

D’Agostino, M. 530

Dagum, P. 485

Dal Lago, U. 843, 862, 863

Dalal, M. 353

Dalmao, S., see Bacchus, F. 120, 478

Dam, M. 527

D’Ambrosio, B.D., see Shachter, R.D. 475

Daneshmend, L.K., see Liu, J. 553

Darga, P.T. 105

Darwiche, A. 120, 343–345, 407, 421, 477–479, 481–483

Darwiche, A., see Allen, D. 479, 480

Darwiche, A., see Chan, H. 484, 489

Darwiche, A., see Chavira, M. 480–484, 493

Darwiche, A., see Huang, C. 477

Darwiche, A., see Park, J.D. 474–477, 481, 482

Darwiche, A., see Pipatsrisawat, K. 89, 94

Dastani, M. 881

Dau, F. 230, 235

Dauchet, M. 49

Daumke, P., see Schulz, S. 557

Daus, S., see Chantler, M. 425

David, A., see Behrmann, G. 533

David, A., see Egenhofer, M.J. 555, 566, 572

Davidson, D. 217

Davies, J., see Samulowitz, H. 119

Davis, E. 67, 71, 72, 199, 522, 571, 575, 582,

608, 615, 616

Davis, M. 4, 19, 21, 24, 30, 92, 183, 185

Davis, R. 97, 395, 411, 937

Davis, R., see Hammond, T. 383

Davis, R., see Stahovich, T. 607, 616

Davis, R., see Stahovich, T.F. 384

Dawid, A.P., see Cowell, R.G. 477 Dawid, A.P., see Lauritzen, S.L. 477 de Alfaro, L., see Alur, R. 913 de Bakker, J.W. 517, 536 de Bakker, J.W., see Emerson, E.A. 913 de Boer, F.S., see Dastani, M. 881 de Boer, F.S., see Hindriks, K.V. 877, 881,

905 de Boer, F.S., see van der Hoek, W. 906 de Coronado, S., see Hartel, F.W. 168 de Coste, D. 366 De Domenico, N., see Picardi, C. 456

De Giacomo, G. 139, 145, 154–156, 862,

871, 872, 875, 877, 879, 881

De Giacomo, G., see Acciarri, A. 139

De Giacomo, G., see Berardi, D. 166

De Giacomo, G., see Calvanese, D. 135, 139,

146, 155, 166, 169 de Hoog, R., see Schreiber, A.Th. 930, 931,

934, 941, 942 de Jong, H. 384 de Jong, H., see Vatcheva, I. 443 de Kleer, J.D. 97, 366, 371, 372, 375, 379,

380, 406–408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 417, 418,

420, 422, 438, 445, 458, 601, 607, 608, 614 de Kleer, J.D., see Gelsey, A. 615 de Kleer, J.D., see Hamscher, W. 458,

461–464 de Kleer, J.D., see Raiman, O. 426, 427 de Kleer, J.D., see Weld, D.S. 407, 431, 461,

462, 552, 568, 618 de Koning, K. 386 de Laguna, T. 563, 568, 570 De Maeyer, P., see Van de Weghe, N. 582 de Mántaras, R.L., see Köhler, C. 554 de Moor, A., see Sowa, J.F. 223 de Nivelle, H., see Areces, C. 155 De Raedt, L., see Kersting, K. 490, 491 De Raedt, L., see Muggleton, S. 70, 492 de Rijke, M., see Areces, C. 155 de Rijke, M., see Bennett, B. 534 de Rijke, M., see Blackburn, P. 157, 520, 890 de Rijke, M., see Kurtonina, N. 157, 159 de Rijke, M., see Parikh, R. 353 de Roever, W.P., see de Bakker, J.W. 517, 536 de Roever, W.P., see Emerson, E.A. 913 de Salvo Braz, R. 493, 813 De Schreye, D., see Van Belleghem, K. 684 de Swart, H., see Horrocks, I. 166 De Tre, G., see Van de Weghe, N. 582

Dean, M. 824, 829

Dean, T. 472

Dean, T., see Boutilier, C. 843

Dechter, R. 97, 182, 186, 187, 190, 196, 200, 406, 418, 475–480, 488, 523

Dechter, R., see Ben-Eliyahu, R. 249, 299

Dechter, R., see Kask, K. 480

Dechter, R., see Marinescu, R. 480

Dechter, R., see Rish, I. 107

Dechter, R., see van Beek, P. 190

Decker, S., see Grosof, B.N. 834

DeCuyper, J. 609, 617

Degtyarev, A. 19, 528, 530 Degtyarev, A., see Konev, B. 530, 532 del Cerro, L.F., see Balbiani, B. 569 del Cerro, L.F., see Balbiani, P. 552, 567, 569,

575 del Favero, B., see Shachter, R.D. 475 del Val, A. 333, 334, 353 Delgrande, J.P. 252, 286, 346, 353

Delgrande, J.P, see Hunter, A. 346, 353

Demazeau, Y., see Jennings, N.R. 893

Demazeau, Y., see Rao, A.S. 897

Demolombe, R. 645, 873

Demri, S. 528

Denecker, M. 274, 674, 699, 701

Denecker, M., see Missiaen, L. 701

Denecker, M., see Pelov, N. 286

Denecker, M., see Van Belleghem, K. 684

Denis, M., see Aurnague, M. 570

Dennett, D.C. 889

DeOliviera, J., see Matuszek, C. 62, 63

Deplagne, E. 43

Dequen, G. 115

Dequen, G., see Dubois, O. 115

Derksen, J.A., see Rulifson, J.F. 61

Derriere, S. 168

Dershowitz, N. 39, 43, 47, 49, 50, 53

Dershowitz, N., see Bachmair, L. 48, 53

Desmedt, J.E., see Andreassen, S. 489

Devambu, P. 166

Devendeville, L., see Habet, D. 107

Deville, Y., see Dooms, G. 201

Deville, Y., see van Hentenryck, P. 182, 200

Devin, V., see Needham, C. 383

Devkar, A., see Nudelman, E. 89, 117

Di Felice, P., see Clementini, D. 382

Di Felice, P., see Clementini, E. 382, 566,

568–572

Di Felice, P., see Egenhofer, M.J. 565

Di Felice, P., see Hernández, D. 568, 569

Diaz, D. 199

Díez, F.J. 471, 477, 478, 480

Dignum, F., see Chopra, A. 761

Dignum, F., see Dastani, M. 881

Dignum, V., see Wooldridge, M.J. 277

Dilkina, B. 114

Dill, D.L., see Alur, R. 517, 518, 533

Dill, D.L., see Burch, J.R. 22, 533

Dillon, T., see Sidhu, A. 168

Dimopoulos, Y. 306, 698, 700 Dincbas, M. 199 d’Inverno, M. 897 Dionne, R., see Hartel, F.W. 168

Dionne, R., see Mays, E. 138

Dix, J. 249, 260, 272

Dix, J., see Aravindan, C. 66

Dix, J., see Brewka, G. 242, 270, 684

Dix, J., see Niemelä, I. 687, 700

Dix, J., see Subrahmanian, V.S. 905

Dixon, C., see Bennett, B. 534

Dixon, C., see Doherty, P. 712, 747

Dixon, C., see Fisher, M. 530

Dixon, C., see Konev, B. 530, 532

Dixon, C., see Reynolds, M. 529, 530

Dixon, H.E. 105, 106

Dogandag, S. 761

Doherty, P. 265, 513, 532, 685, 686, 710–713, 717, 731, 733, 734, 737, 747, 870

Doherty, P., see Gustafsson, J. 694, 711, 712,

735

Doherty, P., see Karlsson, L. 712

Doherty, P., see Kvarnström, J. 711–713, 717,

737

Dolan, B., see Bar-Haim, R. 806

Domenjoud, E. 54, 55

Domingos, P., see Richardson, M. 492

Donini, F.M. 138, 139, 147, 155, 169

Donini, F.M., see Buchheit, M. 139, 149

Donlon, J. 383

Donnelly, M. 558, 563, 570

Dooms, G. 201

Downey, P.J. 53

Doyle, J. 142

Doyle, J., see Bennett, B. 574

Doyle, J., see Borgo, S. 555, 558, 570

Doyle, J., see Cohn, A.G. 571

Doyle, J., see Gustafsson, J. 711, 712, 735

Doyle, J., see Koubarakis, M. 725

Doyle, J., see McDermott, D.V. 67, 69, 252,

273

Doyle, R. 366

Drakengren, T. 519, 523, 532

Drakengren, T., see Jonsson, P. 565, 579

Dreschler-Fischer, L., see Asher, N. 572

Dressler, O. 407, 408, 416–418, 420, 421,

426, 443, 446, 458

Dressler, O., see Beschta, A. 446, 452

Dressler, O., see Picardi, C. 456

Dressler, O., see Struss, P. 408, 412, 414, 419

Drummond, M., see Tate, A. 553

Druzdzel, M.J., see Cheng, J. 485, 486

Druzdzel, M.J., see Lin, Y. 484

Druzdzel, M.J., see Yuan, C. 486

Dubois, D. 194, 276, 353

Dubois, D., see Benferhat, S. 276, 353

Dubois, D., see Delgrande, J.P. 346

Dubois, D., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Dubois, D., see Nebel, B. 330, 334, 335

Dubois, O. 111, 115

Dubois, O., see Dequen, G. 115

Duckham, M., see Worboys, M.F. 551

Dufour, M., see Huele, M. 89

Dugat, V., see Balbiani, B. 569

Dung, P.M. 277

Dung, P.M., see Bondarenko, A. 277

Düntsch, I. 556, 572, 575, 576

Düntsch, I., see Bennett, B. 558

Dupont, P., see Dooms, G. 201

Durbin, R., see Krogh, A. 473

Durfee, E.H., see Yokoo, M. 201

Dvorak, D. 426 Dwork, C. 635

Easton, K. 189

Eddy, S., see Krogh, A. 473

Edelkamp, S. 862

Edelman, S. 551

Edmonds, J., see Clegg, M. 111

Edwards, G. 570

Eén, N. 89, 94, 95

Egar, J., see Puerta, A.R. 934

Egenhofer, M.J., 382, 383, 551, 553–555,

565, 566, 572, 582

Egenhofer, M.J., see Bruns, H.T. 582

Egenhofer, M.J., see Goyal, R. 567

Egenhofer, M.J., see Mark, D.M. 582

Egenhofer, M.J., see Papadias, D. 583

Egenhofer, M.J., see Roy, A.J.O. 565

Egenhofer, M.J., see Schlaisich, I. 554

Ehrig, M.J., see Bozsak, E. 825

Eisenack, K. 384

Eisner, C., see Beer, I. 534

Eiter, T. 169, 266, 286, 293, 299, 310, 353,

761, 862

Eiter, T., see Baral, C. 307

Eiter, T., see Brewka, G. 252

Eiter, T., see Finzi, A. 761

Eiter, T., see Leone, N. 286, 297

Eiter, T., see Subrahmanian, V.S. 905 Eklund, P.W., see Nagle, T.E. 235

El Fattah, Y., see Dechter, R. 477 Elkabani, I. 297

Elliott, G.L., see Haralick, R.M. 183, 185, 186 Ellis, A., see Parsia, B. 169

Ellis, G., see Levinson, R.A. 223, 234

Ellis, G., see Sarraf, Q. 234

Emerson, E.A. 517, 520, 525, 526, 529, 530,

843, 852, 853, 863, 913

Emerson, E.A., see Clarke, E.M. 526, 862

Endrullis, J. 49

Engelhardt, K. 643

Engelmore, R.S. 66

Erdem, E., see Brooks, D.R. 286

Erdogan, S.T., see Akman, V.˘ 700, 761

Erignac, C. 386

Eriksson, H., see Musen, M. 825

Eschenbach, C. 558, 563

Escrig, M.T. 570, 583

Escrig, M.T., see Museros, L. 382

Escrig, M.T., see Pacheco, J. 570

Eshghi, K. 674, 699, 701

Eskridge, T.C., see Hayes, P.J. 65

Esser, M. 457

Esteban, J.L., see Bonet, M.L. 101, 103

Etessami, K., see Alur, R. 517

Etherington, D.W. 242, 275

Euzenat, J. 517

Evans, M. 571

Evans, T. 383

Everett, J. 386

Everett, J., see Forbus, K.D. 372, 386

Faber, W. 286, 307

Faber, W., see Eiter, T. 862

Faber, W., see Leone, N. 286, 297

Fages, F. 294, 297

Fagin, R. 622, 637, 642, 644, 891, 918

Fagin, R., see Halpern, J.Y. 644

Fahle, T. 106, 193

Fahlman, S. 607

Falappa, M.A., see Hansson, S.-O. 347, 348

Falck, B., see Andreassen, S. 489

Falkenhainer, B. 376, 378, 616

Falkenhainer, B., see Bell, D. 366

Falkenhainer, B., see Bobrow, D.G. 370

Falkenhainer, B., see Forbus, K.D. 386

Falle, M., see van der Hoek, W. 901

Faltings, B. 382, 384, 464, 553, 554, 604,

605, 614, 615

Faltings, B., see de Kleer, J.D. 407

Faltings, B., see Forbus, K.D. 382, 384, 552,

583, 607, 615, 616

Faltings, B., see Kim, H. 382

Faltings, B., see Petcu, A. 201, 202

Fargier, H. 194

Fargier, H., see Amilhastre, J. 202

Fargier, H., see Bistarelli, S. 195

Fargier, H., see Dubois, D. 194

Fargier, H., see Schiex, T. 194

Fariñas del Cerro, L., see Cavali, A. 530

Fariñas del Cerro, L., see Lindstrom, S. 353

Fariñas del Cerro, L., see Orgun, M. 532 Farley, A. 384

Farquhar, A., see Bobrow, D.G. 370

Farrell, A.D.H. 701

Fasarie, F.E., see Miller, R.A. 489

Feigenbaum, E.A., see Buchanan, B.G. 617

Feigenbaum, E.A., see Gelernter, H. 37

Feldman, A., see Ferguson, R.W. 554

Feldman, J., see Gelernter, H. 37

Felfernig, A. 455, 458

Fellbaum, C. 780, 787, 789, 794, 814

Feltovich, P., see Biswas, G. 385

Fensel, D. 59, 60, 142, 935, 936

Fensel, D., see Bennett, B. 571

Fensel, D., see Hazarika, S.M. 582

Feo, T.A., see Resende, M.G.C. 107

Fergerson, R., see Knublauch, H. 168, 169

Ferguson, R.W. 554

Ferguson, R.W., see Forbus, K.D. 554

Ferme, E. 353

Ferme, E.L., see Hansson, S.-O. 347, 348

Fernandez, A.J. 201

Fernandez, C., see Gomes, C.P. 113

Fernyhough, J. 383, 554, 583

Ferraris, P. 286, 292, 309

Ferraris, P., see Dogandag, S. 761

Ferrein, A. 870, 880, 881

Ferro, L., see Bar-Haim, R. 806

Fichtner, M. 881

Fielding, J. 827

Fikes, R.E. 61, 770, 842, 870, 876, 909

Fikes, R.E., see Bobrow, D.G. 370

Fikes, R.E., see Brachman, R.J. 136, 138

Fikes, R.E., see Genesereth, M.R. 217, 826

Fikes, R.E., see Rao, A.S. 897

Fillmore, C. 814

Fillmore, C., see Baker, C. 387

Findler, N.V. 213

Fine, K. 146

Finger, J.J. 657, 694

Finger, M. 534

Finger, M., see Gabbay, D.M. 514, 522

Fink, M., see Eiter, T. 299

Finkbeiner, B., see Bjørner, N. 532

Finzi, A. 761, 870, 881

Finzi, A., see Carbone, A. 881

Finzi, A., see Pirri, F. 872 Fischer, B. 59

Fischer, K. 897

Fischer, M.J. 146, 154

Fishelson, M. 480

Fisher, M. 428, 514, 522, 530, 532, 537,

539–543, 547–550, 905

Fisher, M., see Baral, C. 709

Fisher, M., see Barringer, H. 522, 532, 905

Fisher, M., see Bennett, B. 534

Fisher, M., see Bolotov, A. 530

Fisher, M., see Degtyarev, A. 528, 530 Fisher, M., see Doherty, P. 712, 747

Fisher, M., see Konev, B. 530, 532

Fisher, M., see Wooldridge, M.J. 908

Fisman, D., see Beer, I. 534

Fisman, D., see Ben-David, S. 534

Fisseha, F., see Soergel, D. 168

Fitting, M. 25, 34, 530

Fix, L., see Armoni, R. 534

Flaisher, A., see Armoni, R. 534

Fleck, M.M. 563

Fleischanderl, G. 455

Flener, P. 192, 193

Flögel, A., see Kleine-Büning, H. 118

Floriano, L., see Baral, C. 881

Flouris, G. 353 Focacci, F. 106

Fokoue, A., see Kershenbaum, A. 168

Foo, N.Y., see Peppas, P. 352, 353 Foo, N.Y., see Zhang, D. 337–339

Foo, N.Y., see Zhang, Y. 353

Forbus, K.D. 367, 372, 373, 379, 380,

382–387, 407, 431, 433, 435, 513, 552, 554,

583, 601, 602, 607, 614–616

Forbus, K.D., see Biswas, G. 385

Forbus, K.D., see Bobrow, D.G. 370

Forbus, K.D., see Collins, J.W. 609, 616

Forbus, K.D., see Donlon, J. 383

Forbus, K.D., see Falkenhainer, B. 376, 378

Forbus, K.D., see Klenk, M. 383

Forbus, K.D., see Kuehne, S. 374, 387

Forbus, K.D., see Tomai, E. 383

Ford, K.M., see Morgenstern, L. 69

Formentini, U., see Egenhofer, M.J. 582

Formentini, U., see Freksa, C. 382

Fowler, A. 806

Fox, D., see Burgard, W. 881

Fox, M. 106, 532, 870

Fox, M., see Long, D. 749

Fragoso, G., see Golbeck, J. 830

Fragoso, G., see Hartel, F.W. 168

Franceschet, M. 516

Franceschet, M., see Cervesato, I. 672

Franco, J. 110, 111

Franco, J., see Gu, J. 107

Franconi, E. 66, 169

Franconi, E., see Artale, A. 534, 535, 939

Franconi, E., see Baader, F. 150

Franconi, E., see Bennett, B. 534

Franconi, E., see Bresciani, P. 139, 150

Frank, A.M., see Clementini, E. 571

Frank, A.M., see Cohn, A.G. 571, 572

Frank, A.M., see Freksa, C. 382

Frank, A.M., see Hernández, D. 568, 569

Frank, A.M., see Mark, D.M. 582

Frank, A.M., see Schlieder, C. 566

Frank, A.M., see Zimmermann, K. 568, 570 Frank, A.U. 566, 567, 570

Frank, A.U., see Edwards, G. 570

Frank, A.U., see Egenhofer, M.J. 551, 553,

582

Frank, A.U., see Faltings, B. 553

Frank, J. 107, 108

Frank, M., see Ginsberg, M.L. 186

Franzosa, R., see Egenhofer, M. 555, 565

Franzosa, R.D., see Egenhofer, M.J. 565

Fraser, G. 387

Fraser, K., see Lacy, L. 168

Fredrickson, J., see White, B. 387

Freeman, W.T., see Tappen, M.F. 489

Freeman, W.T., see Yedidia, J.S. 486, 488,

489

Frege, G. 4, 214

Freitag, H., see Beschta, A. 446, 452

Freksa, C. 382, 582

Freksa, C., see Bittner, T. 572

Freksa, C., see Cohn, A.G. 383

Freksa, C., see Renz, J. 582

Freksa, C., see Zimmermann, K. 570

French, T. 529

Freuder, E.C. 182, 194, 195, 577

Freuder, E.C., see Koubarakis, M. 191

Freuder, E.C., see Snow, P. 196

Freund, M. 344

Freundschuh, S., see Mark, D.M. 582

Frey, B.J. 486, 487

Friedell, M.F. 630

Friedgut, E. 111

Friedland, N.S. 617, 780

Friedman, N. 353, 471, 490, 491, 494, 497

Friedman, N., see Boutilier, C. 471, 480

Friedman, N., see Getoor, L. 491

Friedrich, G. 414, 423, 449, 456

Friedrich, G., see Felfernig, A. 455, 458

Friedrich, G., see Fleischanderl, G. 455

Frieze, A. 111

Frieze, A., see Broder, A. 111

Frisch, A. 193

Frisch, A., see Flener, P. 192, 193

Fritz, C., see Ferrein, A. 870, 880, 881

Frohm, E.A., see Bahar, R.I. 479

Froidevaux, C., see Bidoit, N. 253, 309

Fromherz, M., see Bell, D. 366

Frost, D. 113

Frühwirth, T.W. 66, 182, 199

Frystyk, H., see Fielding, J. 827

Fuchs, N.E., see Kowalski, R.A. 701

Fuhrmann, A. 330, 339

Fujita, M., see Biere, A. 89, 533

Fung, R. 486 Funt, B. 616

Furbach, U. 49, 78–80, 82, 84

Furbach, U., see Baader, F. 139, 165 Furbach, U., see Baumgartner, P. 59 Furbach, U., see Dix, J. 249, 260

Furbach, U., see Kazakov, Y. 155

Furbach, U., see Niemelä, I. 687, 700

Furbach, U., see Sutcliffe, G. 20, 21 Furst, M.L., see Blum, A.L. 861

Gaasterland, T. 780

Gabbay, D.M. 265, 270, 514–517, 520–523,

527, 529, 531, 539, 542, 546, 549, 890

Gabbay, D.M., see Baral, C. 709

Gabbay, D.M., see Barringer, H. 520, 522,

532, 905

Gabbay, D.M., see D’Agostino, M. 530

Gabbay, D.M., see Davis, M. 4

Gabbay, D.M., see Doherty, P. 686, 710, 712,

731

Gabbay, D.M., see Dubois, D. 276

Gabbay, D.M., see Finger, M. 534

Gabbay, D.M., see Fisher, M. 514, 537,

539–543, 547–550, 905

Gabbay, D.M., see Harel, D. 890

Gabbay, D.M., see Horty, J.F. 276

Gabbay, D.M., see Lifschitz, V. 260, 262,

264, 265, 684–686, 689, 732, 733

Gabbay, D.M., see Nute, D. 276

Gabbay, D.M., see Ohlbach, H.-J. 516

Gabbay, D.M., see Prakken, H. 277

Gabbay, D.M., see Stirling, C. 529

Gabelaia, D. 524, 575

Gaillourdet, J.-M. 43

Galán, S.F., see Díez, F.J. 480

Galata, A. 583

Galata, A., see Cohn, A.G. 383

Galesi, N., see Bonet, M.L. 101, 103

Gallaire, H., see Clark, K. 12, 761

Gallaire, H., see Clark, K.L. 654, 684

Gallaire, H., see Reiter, R. 250, 251

Galliers, J.R. 893

Galton, A.P. 514, 522, 531, 555, 564, 565,

569, 582

Galton, A.P., see Bennett, B. 684

Galton, A.P., see Meathrel, R.C. 569

Galton, A.P., see Sadri, F. 672, 674, 699

Gamma, E. 934

Gammie, P. 644

Gangemi, A. 941

Gangemi, A., see Oltramari, A. 939

Ganter, B., see Sowa, J.F. 223 Ganzinger, H. 30

Ganzinger, H., see Bachmair, L. 38, 42, 43,

530

Ganzinger, H., see Bishop, M. 56

Ganzinger, H., see Horrocks, I. 139, 149, 155

Gao, X.S., see Chou, S.C. 55

Gaona, C.M., see Bahar, R.I. 479

Gapp, K.-P., see Mukerjee, A. 554 Gärdenfors, P. 319, 325, 326, 341, 353

Gärdenfors, P., see Alchourrón, C.E. 317,

322, 324, 902

Gärdenfors, P., see Dubois, D. 353

Gardin, F. 609, 616

Garey, M.R. 163, 248

Garrett, S., see King, R. 384

Garson, J. 525

Gaschnig, J. 183, 185, 186

Gaskill, R., see Lacy, L. 168

Gebser, M. 286

Gediga, G., see Düntsch, I. 572

Geelen, P.A. 187, 192

Geffner, H. 761

Geffner, H., see Vidal, V. 532

Geiger, D. 472, 487

Geiger, D., see Becker, A. 478

Geiger, D., see Fishelson, M. 480

Geiger, D., see Heckerman, D.E. 497

Geiger, D., see Jaeger, M. 491, 492

Geiger, D., see Verma, T. 472

Geiselmann, J., see de Jong, H. 384

Gelatt Jr., D., see Kirkpatrick, S. 109

Gelder, A.V. 296

Gelernter, H. 37

Gelfond, G., see Baral, C. 796

Gelfond, M. 89, 253, 265, 285, 286, 291, 293,

300, 303, 309, 697, 698, 770, 793, 796, 813,

843

Gelfond, M., see Balduccini, M. 286, 304,

307, 453

Gelfond, M., see Baral, C. 286, 288, 290, 293,

303, 309, 522, 532, 709, 796, 803, 815

Gelfond, M., see Baselice, S. 297, 815

Gelfond, M., see Kakas, A.C. 699, 700

Gelfond, M., see Nogueira, M. 70, 286, 306

Gelfond, M., see Son, T.C. 307

Gelsey, A. 606, 615, 616

Gendreau, M., see Pesant, G. 202

Genesereth, M. 67

Genesereth, M.R. 97, 217, 689, 826

Gennari, J.H., see Musen, M. 825

Gennari, J.H., see Rector, A.L. 65

Gent, I.P. 106, 107, 112, 118, 186, 193112

Gent, I.P., see Hoos, H.H. 89

Gent, I.P., see Hustadt, U. 146

Gent, I.P., see Roney-Dougal, C. 193

Gentner, D. 387

Gentner, D., see Forbus, K.D. 387

Gentzen, G. 6, 227

Georgeff, M.P. 897

Georgeff, M.P., see Lifschitz, V. 909, 919

Georgeff, M.P., see Rao, A.S. 891, 897, 900,

905, 908

Gerber, W., see Lacy, L. 168

Gerevini, A. 519, 523, 570, 583

Gerholz, L.L., see Nagle, T.E. 235

Gerla, G. 558, 562, 563

Gerla, G., see Biacino, L. 555, 562, 563

Gerth, R. 533

Gerth, R., see Armoni, R. 534

Gervet, C. 200

Gervet, C., see Sadler, A. 201

Getoor, L. 491

Getoor, L., see Friedman, N. 490, 491

Gettier, E. 621

Gettys, J., see Fielding, J. 827

Ghahramani, Z. 487

Ghahramani, Z., see Jordan, M.I. 486

Ghallab, M. 841, 876

Ghallab, M., see Kvarnström, J. 713

Ghose, A. 348

Ghose, A., see Chopra, S. 348

Ghose, A., see Zowghi, D. 353

Giampiccolo, D., see Bar-Haim, R. 806

Giesl, J. 41, 49, 57

Giesl, J., see Arts, T. 41

Gil, Y., see Rector, A.L. 65

Gilboa, I., see Engelhardt, K. 643

Gilmore, P.C. 19, 29

Ginsberg, M.L. 107, 186, 653, 660, 694, 735,

737, 742, 938

Ginsberg, M.L., see Baker, A.B. 265

Ginsberg, M.L., see Crawford, J.M. 105, 193

Ginsberg, M.L., see Dixon, H.E. 105, 106

Ginsberg, M.L., see Lifschitz, V. 675

Ginsburg, B., see Armoni, R. 534

Giordano, L. 353

Giovanardi, A., see Cadoli, M. 118

Giovanardi, M., see Cadoli, M. 118

Girardelli, E., see Picardi, C. 456

Girju, R., see de Salvo Braz, R. 813

Girju, R., see Moldovan, D. 782

Giunchiglia, E. 118, 286, 697, 700, 711, 735,

761, 763, 767, 768, 770, 771, 843, 861, 862,

871

Giunchiglia, E., see Castellini, C. 861

Giunchiglia, E., see Cimatti, A. 862

Giunchiglia, F. 611

Giunchiglia, F., see Artikis, A. 761

Giunchiglia, F., see Cimatti, A. 533, 862

Giunchiglia, F., see Cristani, M. 568, 571

Glasgow, J. 583

Glasgow, J., see DeCuyper, J. 609, 617

Glasgow, J., see Forbus, K.D. 382

Glasgow, J., see Gardin, F. 609, 616

Glickman, O., see Dagan, I. 806, 813

Gliozzi, V., see Giordano, L. 353

Glover, F. 188

Glymour, C. 496

Goble, C., see Bechhofer, S. 168, 169

Gödel, K. 14

Godfrey, P., see Gaasterland, T. 780

Goebel, G., see Ghose, A. 348

Gogic, G. 249

Golbeck, J. 830

Golbeck, J., see Hartel, F.W. 168

Golbreich, C. 168

Goldberg, A. 110

Goldberg, E. 89, 94

Goldblatt, R. 529

Golden, K. 201

Goldman, R.P. 491, 862

Goldman, R.P., see Wellman, M.P. 490

Goldszmidt, M. 353

Goldszmidt, M., see Boutilier, C. 471, 480

Goldszmidt, M., see Friedman, N. 471, 494

Goldwasser, S. 622

Golomb, S. 185, 187

Gomes, C.P. 89, 95, 104, 111, 113, 115–117,

121, 187

Gomes, C.P., see Ansotegui, C. 119

Gomes, C.P., see Chen, H. 113

Gomes, C.P., see Dilkina, B. 114

Gomes, C.P., see Hoffmann, J. 115

Gomes, C.P., see Horvitz, E.J. 117

Gomes, C.P., see Kautz, H.A. 117

Gomes, C.P., see Sabharwal, A. 119

Gomes, C.P., see Williams, R. 90, 113, 114

Gómez, R. 530

Gonçalvès, E. 145

Gonzalez, C.A., see Pulido, B. 421

Gooday, J.M. 554

Gooday, J.M., see Cohn, A.G. 381, 555, 563, 564, 571

Gooday, J.M., see Gotts, N.M. 555, 557, 563,

564

Goodwin, J. 168

Goolsbey, K., see Ramachandran, D. 63

Goranko, V. 519, 524, 528, 530, 910, 916

Gordon, M.J. 22, 56

Gordon, U., see Aurell, E. 112

Goré, R., see Demri, S. 528

Goré, R., see Sattler, U. 155 Gore, R., see Stenz, G. 29

Görz, G., see Sattler, U. 154

Gottlob, G. 191, 248, 260, 275

Gottlob, G., see Eiter, T. 266, 293, 353 Gottlob, G., see Friedrich, G. 414, 449 Gottlob, G., see Leone, N. 286, 297

Gottlob, G., see MacCartney, B. 65

Gottlob, G., see Santos, P. 554

Gottlob, G., see Schlobach, S. 169

Gotts, N.M. 555, 557, 563, 564

Gotts, N.M., see Cohn, A.G. 381, 555, 563,

564, 571, 572

Gotts, N.M., see Davis, E. 571, 575 Gough, G.D. 530

Gough, G.D., see Barringer, H. 905 Gould, J., see Mark, D.M. 582 Governatori, G., see Antoniou, G. 276

Goyal, R. 567

Grädel, E. 139, 145

Grädel, E., see Gonçalvès, E. 145

Graf, T., see Dincbas, M. 199

Grahne, G. 353

Granlund, G., see Doherty, P. 870

Grant, S.A., see Smith, B.M. 112

Grau, B.C. 65

Grau, B.C., see Kalyanpur, A. 825

Grau, B.C., see Sirin, E. 825

Green, B. 780

Green, C.C. 61, 665, 747, 780

Greenbaum, S., see Plaisted, D.A. 700

Gregoire, E., see Mazure, B. 107

Grégoire, E., see Ostrowski, R. 89

Greiner, R. 412

Greiner, R., see Guo, Y. 494

Grenon, P. 582

Gribomont, P. 514

Griffin, D.R., see Whitehead, A.N. 558

Grigni, M. 581

Grigni, M., see Chen, Z.-Z. 581

Gringauze, A., see Beer, I. 534

Groenendijk, J.A.G., see Kamp, H. 216

Grosof, B.N. 689, 834

Grosof, B.N., see Hirtle, D. 831, 836

Grosskreutz, H. 871, 872, 881

Großmann, A., see Fichtner, M. 881

Grove, A. 327, 328

Gruber, T.R. 930, 936, 938, 940, 941

Gruber, T.R., see Bobrow, D.G. 370

Gruber, T.R., see Karp, P.D. 826

Grumberg, O., see Bernholtz, O. 156

Grumberg, O., see Clarke, E.M. 533, 644,

908, 909, 913

Grzegorczyk, A. 563, 574

Gu, J. 107

Guarino, N. 941

Guarino, N., see Borgo, S. 555, 558, 570

Guarino, N., see Gruber, T.R. 941

Guarino, N., see Oltramari, A. 939

Guelev, D. 517, 524

Guenther, F., see Harel, D. 890

Guenthner, F., see Gabbay, D. 539, 542, 549

Guenthner, F., see Prakken, H. 277

Guerrin, F. 367

Guglielmann, R., see Bellazzi, R. 366

Guha, R.V., see Brickley, D. 824

Guha, R.V., see Lenat, D.B. 62, 813

Guinchiglia, F., see Hazarika, S.M. 582

Gunning, D., see Cohen, P.R. 62, 73

Guo, Y. 494

Gupta, A., see Prasad, M.R. 533

Gurevich, Y. 525

Gurevich, Y., see Blass, A. 527

Gustafsson, J. 694, 711–713, 735, 747

Gustafsson, J., see Doherty, P. 711, 712, 733, 734

Gustafsson, J., see Karlsson, L. 711, 712, 744,

745, 747

Gutiérrez, J.M., see Castillo, E. 489

Guttag, J.V. 47

Gyssens, M., see Jeavons, P. 190

Haack, S. 527

Haarslev, V. 139, 147, 150, 166, 168, 169,

554, 575

Haas, A.R. 654, 694

Haase, P., see Wang, Y. 65

Habel, C., see Cohn, A.G. 383

Habel, C., see Renz, J. 582

Habet, D. 107

Hachtel, G.D., see Bahar, R.I. 479

Haddawy, P. 491, 492

Haddawy, P., see Ngo, L. 491, 492

Hadi, A.S., see Castillo, E. 489

Haft, M. 487

Haghighi, A. 813

Hagino, T., see Parsia, B. 169

Hahn, U., see Schulz, S. 557

Hähnel, D., see Burgard, W. 881

Hähnle, R. 36

Hähnle, R., see D’Agostino, M. 530

Hájek, P., see Janin, D. 156

Hajiaghayi, M. 111

Haken, A. 25, 106, 110

Halbwachs, N., see Alur, R. 518, 525

Hale, R. 532

Halfhill, T.R. 60

Halpern, J.Y. 72, 255, 277, 519, 523, 524,

622, 629, 630, 635–637, 643, 644, 890, 908

Halpern, J.Y., see Bacchus, F. 872

Halpern, J.Y., see Ben-Ari, M. 146

Halpern, J.Y., see Emerson, E.A. 517, 526, 530

Halpern, J.Y., see Fagin, R. 622, 637, 642,

644, 891, 918

Halpern, J.Y., see Friedman, N. 353

Halpern, J.Y., see Morgenstern, L. 909

Halpern, J.Y., see Rosenschein, S. 906

Halpin, H. 701

Halpin, M.P., see Ginsberg, M.L. 186

Hamm, F., see van Lambalgen, M. 701

Hammond, T. 383

Hamscher, W. 458, 461–464

Handschub, S., see Bozsak, E. 825

Hanks, S. 69, 535, 653, 686, 731, 772

Hanks, S., see Boutilier, C. 843

Hanschke, P., see Baader, F. 143

Hansen, J.R., see Gelernter, H. 37

Hansen, M.R., see Chaochen, Z. 524, 525 Hansson, S.-O. 330–332, 347, 348 Hansson, S.-O., see Fuhrmann, A. 339

Harabagiu, S. 786, 788

Harabagiu, S., see Clark, C. 782, 783, 790,

792

Harabagiu, S., see Moldovan, D. 782

Haralick, R.M. 183, 185, 186

Hardesty, A., see Baral, C. 881

Harel, D. 649, 890, 891, 895

Harland, J., see Vaghani, J. 285

Harsanyi, J. 622

Hart, J.W., see Sabharwal, A. 119

Hartel, F., see Golbeck, J. 830

Hartel, F.W. 168

Hartley, S. 386

Harvey, W., see Gent, I.P. 106

Harvey, W.D. 187

Haselboeck, A., see Fleischanderl, G. 455

Hasle, P. 530

Haslum, P., see Kvarnström, J. 713

Hastad, J. 480

Haug, E.J., see Wehage, R.A. 616

Haugeland, J., see Minsky, M. 138

Hauser, B., see Fowler, A. 806

Havelund, K., see Visser, W. 534

Hayes, P.J. 65, 67, 71, 138, 166, 218, 222,

231, 303, 310, 556, 582, 609–611, 614

Hayes, P.J., see Allen, J.F. 523

Hayes, P.J., see McCarthy, J. 67, 240, 649, 651, 653, 684, 759, 906

Hayes, P.J., see Patel-Schneider, P.F. 142,

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Hays, D.G. 213

Hazarika, S.M. 574, 582

Hazarika, S.M., see Bennett, B. 570, 615

Hazarika, S.M., see Cohn, A.G. 382, 383,

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Hebrard, E., see Bessiere, C. 201

Heckerman, D.E. 480, 497

Heckerman, D.E., see Chickering, D.M. 496

Heckerman, D.E., see Shwe, M. 489

Heckerman, D.E., see Smyth, P. 472

Heckerman, D.E., see Suermondt, H.J. 477,

478

Heidema, J., see Meyer, T. 353

Heilbrunner, S. 51

Heinsohn, J. 150

Heller, U. 384, 422, 433–436, 438, 453

Helm, R., see Gamma, E. 934

Helmert, M., see Edelkamp, S. 862

Hempel, C.G. 70

Hendler, J.A., see Allen, J.F. 909

Hendler, J.A., see Baclawski, K. 62

Hendler, J.A., see Berners-Lee, T. 823, 836

Hendler, J.A., see Broekstra, J. 824

Hendler, J.A., see Golbeck, J. 830

Hendler, J.A., see Kalyanpur, A. 168, 169,

825

Hendler, J.A., see Moore, R.C. 891, 909

Hendler, J.A., see Tate, A. 553

Hendricks, V.F., see Sowa, J.F. 233

Hendrix, J. 43

Henriksen, J.G. 517

Henrion, M. 471, 485

Henrion, M., see Fung, R. 486

Henrion, M., see Pradhan, M. 489

Henrion, M., see Shachter, R.D. 486

Henrion, M., see Shwe, M. 489

Henz, M. 199

Henzinger, T.A. 525, 527

Henzinger, T.A., see Alur, R. 517, 518,

524–526, 910, 913

Henzinger, T.A., see Schobbens, P.-Y. 525

Hernandez, C., see de Jong, H. 384

Hernández, D. 382, 566, 568, 569

Hernández, D., see Clementini, E. 382, 568

Herskovits, A. 554

Herskovits, E., see Cooper, G.F. 497

Hertzberg, J., see Kvarnström, J. 713

Herzig, A. 353

Herzig, A., see Lindstrom, S. 353

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Herzog, J., see Youn, P. 60

Heskes, T. 489

Heskes, T., see Wiegerinck, W. 489

Hewitt, C. 241

Heydrich, W., see Eschenbach, C. 558

Heymans, S. 288

Hickey, T. 368

Hill, P.M., see Fernandez, A.J. 201

Hillenbrand, T., see Gaillourdet, J.-M. 43

Hillenbrand, T., see Weidenbach, C. 59

Hindriks, K.V. 877, 881, 905

Hindriks, K.V., see van der Hoek, W. 906

Hintikka, J. 621, 872

Hirokawa, N. 41, 49

Hirsch, B. 530

Hirsch, E.A. 89, 107, 109

Hirsch, R. 523

Hirtle, D. 831, 836

Hitzler, P., see Schärfe, H. 235

Hnich, B., see Bessiere, C. 201

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Hoare, C.A.R., see Zhou, C. 524, 525

Hobbs, J.R. 61, 70, 71, 568, 786, 939

Hobbs, J.R., see Hayes, P.J. 67, 71, 582,

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Hodkinson, I., see Gabbay, D. 514, 516, 517,

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Hoey, J. 471, 479

Hoffman, D. 382

Hoffmann, J. 115, 842, 861

Hoffmann, J., see Brafman, R. 842, 861

Hofmann, M. 163

Hofmann, R., see Haft, M. 487

Hofstadter, D.R. 889

Hogg, D., see Cohn, A.G. 383

Hogg, D., see Fernyhough, J. 383, 554, 583

Hogg, D., see Galata, A. 583

Hogg, D., see Needham, C. 383

Hogg, T. 112, 113

Hogger, C.J., see Davis, M. 4

Hogger, C.J., see Dubois, D. 276

Hogger, C.J., see Horty, J.F. 276

Hogger, C.J., see Lifschitz, V. 260, 262, 264,

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Hogger, C.J., see Nute, D. 276

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Hölldobler, S., see Heilbrunner, S. 51

Hölldobler, S., see Sattler, U. 154

Hollunder, B. 138, 156

Hollunder, B., see Baader, F. 139, 147, 149,

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Hollunder, B., see Donini, F.M. 139

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Holzmann, G.J. 533, 908

Hooker, J.N. 107, 188

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Hoos, H.H., see Gent, I.P. 118

Hoos, H.H., see Nudelman, E. 89, 117

Hopkins, M., see Darwiche, A. 479

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Horn, W., see Kvarnström, J. 713

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Horrocks, I., see Bechhofer, S. 168, 169

Horrocks, I., see Bennett, B. 534

Horrocks, I., see Broekstra, J. 824

Horrocks, I., see Fensel, D. 142

Horrocks, I., see Grosof, B.N. 834

Horrocks, I., see Patel-Schneider, P.F. 142, 167, 825, 830

Horrocks, I., see Tsarkov, D. 147, 168, 169

Horty, J.F. 276

Horvitz, E.J. 117, 477, 478

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Hsiang, J., see Bachmair, L. 48

Hsiang, J., see Dershowitz, N. 53

Hsiang, J., see Zhang, H. 89

Hu, A., see Hoey, J. 471, 479

Huang, C. 477 Huang, X. 374

Huber, M. 897

Hübner, K., see Wagner, T. 553

Huele, M. 89

Huet, G. 47–49, 57

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Hughes, G.E. 254, 256, 258, 627, 628

Huizing, C., see de Bakker, J.W. 517, 536

Hullot, J.M., see Huet, G. 57

Hunter, A. 346, 353

Hunter, A., see Besnard, P. 277

Hustadt, U. 146, 155, 156, 532

Hustadt, U., see Hirsch, B. 530

Hustadt, U., see Konev, B. 530, 532

Hutter, D., see Bundy, A. 57

Hwang, L.J., see Burch, J.R. 22, 533 Hyvönen, E. 199

Ianni, G., see Eiter, T. 310

Ibrahim, M.T., see Cicekli, N.K. 699, 701

Imielinski, T. 275

Impagliazzo, R., see Beame, P.W. 103, 120

Impagliazzo, R., see Clegg, M. 111

Ingrand, F.F. 870

Inoue, K., see Sakama, C. 286

Interian, Y. 115

Inza, I. 494

Iocchi, L., see de Giacomo, G. 881

Ireland, A., see Bundy, A. 57

Ironi, L. 384

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Ishida, T., see Yokoo, M. 201

Ishiguro, H., see Sogo, T. 583

Isli, A. 566

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Israel, D.J., see Friedland, N.S. 780

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Iwasaki, Y. 375

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Jaakkola, T., see Jordan, M.I. 486

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Jacquemard, F. 43

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Jaffar, J. 197, 199

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Jamroga, W. 918

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Janhunen, T. 300, 302

Janin, D. 156

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Janson, S. 111, 199

Janssen, T.M.V., see Kamp, H. 216

Jeavons, P. 190

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Jefferson, C., see Cohen, D.A. 193

Jeffrey, R. 469

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Jennings, N.R. 893

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Jensen, F.V. 476, 477, 489

Jensen, F.V., see Andreassen, S. 489

Jensen, F.V., see Nielsen, T. 479

Jensen, R.M. 862

Jeroslow, R.G. 94

Jia, H. 113

Jin, X., see Liu, Y. 567

Jin, Y. 345, 346

Joe, G., see Mukerjee, A. 568

Johannsen, J., see Alekhnovich, M. 101, 103

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Johnson, D.S. 108, 188

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Johnson, D.S., see Spears, W.M. 107

Johnson, J.R., see Caviness, B.F. 55

Johnson, R., see Gamma, E. 934

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Johnston, M.D., see Minton, S. 107, 187

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Jonsson, P. 191, 565, 579

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Jordan, M.I., see Smyth, P. 472

Jordan, M.I., see Xing, E.P. 487

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Jørgensen, K.F., see Sowa, J.F. 233

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Kaci, S., see Benferhat, S. 349

Kaelbling, L.P., see Rosenschein, S. 906

Kaelbling, L.P., see Rosenschein, S.J. 622,

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Kaelbling, L.P., see Santos, P. 570, 571

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Kakas, A.C., see Miller, R.A. 671, 679, 683,

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Kalmár, L. 15

Kalyanpur, A. 168, 169, 825

Kalyanpur, A., see Grau, B.C. 65 Kalyanpur, A., see Parsia, B. 169

Kalyanpur, A., see Sirin, E. 147, 168, 825

Kamath, A. 107

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Kambhampati, S., see Calvanese, D. 139

Kambhampati, S., see Matuszek, C. 71

Kameyama, M., see Hobbs, J.R. 70

Kamin, S. 40, 48

Kamp, H. 216, 217, 807

Kamp, J. 516, 520–522, 531

Kampman, A., see Broekstra, J. 824

Kamps, J. 384

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Kanal, L.N., see Fung, R. 486

Kanal, L.N., see Henrion, M. 471

Kanal, L.N., see Shachter, R.D. 486

Kanazawa, K. 486

Kanazawa, K., see Dean, T. 472

Kanazawa, K., see Russell, S.J. 495

Kanoui, H., see Colmerauer, A. 285

Kanza, T., see Armoni, R. 534

Kao, M.-Y., see Chen, Z.-Z. 581

Kaporis, A.C. 111

Kappen, H.J. 489

Kapur, D. 53, 54, 57

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Kapur, D., see Guttag, J.V. 47

Kapur, D., see Owrie, S. 22, 60

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Karlsson, L., see Bjäreland, M. 712

Karlsson, L., see Doherty, P. 711, 733, 734

Karmarkar, N., see Kamath, A. 107

Karp, P.D. 826

Karp, R., see Beame, P.W. 111

Karpinski, M., see Kleine-Büning, H. 118

Karsai, G. 438, 458

Kartha, G.N. 735

Kartha, G.N., see Giunchiglia, E. 843, 862

Kask, K. 480

Kask, K., see Dechter, R. 488

Kassirer, J., see Kuipers, B.J. 387

Katsuno, H. 343, 349, 352

Katz, G. 804

Katz, S. 517

Katz, S., see Soergel, D. 168

Katz, Y., see Sirin, E. 147, 168, 825

Kaufman, B., see Gebser, M. 286

Kaufman, S. 572

Kaufmann, M. 20, 22, 57, 60

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Kautz, H.A., see Beame, P.W. 100, 101, 103,

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Kautz, H.A., see Gomes, C.P. 89, 95, 104,

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Kautz, H.A., see Horvitz, E.J. 117

Kautz, H.A., see McAllester, D.A. 107

Kautz, H.A., see Sang, T. 120, 483, 484

Kautz, H.A., see Selman, B. 89, 107–109, 700

Kautz, H.A., see Vilain, M. 200

Kazakov, Y. 155

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Kelsey, T., see Roney-Dougal, C. 193

Kemp, D.B., see Vaghani, J. 285

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Kenny, A. 900

Kernighan, B., see Lin, S. 107

Kershenbaum, A. 168

Kersting, K. 490, 491

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Ketner, K.L., see Peirce, C.S. 233

Keymeulen, D., see DeCuyper, J. 609, 617

Khatib, L., see Doherty, P. 711, 712, 717, 737

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Kilby, P. 115, 202

Kim, H. 380, 382, 604, 605, 610

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Kim, P. 453

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Kintsch, W. 794

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Kjaerulff, U. 484, 489

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Kjaerulff, U., see Nielsen, T. 479

Kleine-Büning, H. 117, 118

Klenk, M. 383

Klop, J.W., see Toyama, Y. 50

Knauff, M. 582

Knauff, M., see Renz, J. 582

Knight, B., see Ma, J. 519, 522

Knublauch, H. 168, 169

Knuth, D.E. 43, 47, 48

Köbler, J. 105

Koeb, D. 457

Koehler, J., see Dimopoulos, Y. 306

Koenig, S., see Wooldridge, M.J. 277

Kogut, P.A., see Baclawski, K. 62

Köhler, C. 554

Kojevnikov, A., see Hirsch, E.A. 89, 107, 109

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Koller, D. 491

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Koller, D., see Friedman, N. 490, 491

Koller, D., see Getoor, L. 491

Koller, D., see Kanazawa, K. 486

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Konev, B. 530, 532

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Konev, B., see Hustadt, U. 532

Konev, B., see Mueller, E.T. 700

Konieczny, S. 346, 349

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Kontchakov, R. 530

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Kooi, B.P., see van Ditmarsch, H.P. 891, 892

Koomen, J.A., see Allen, J.F. 519

Koprowski, A. 49

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Korovin, K. 53

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Koubarakis, M. 191, 725

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Kounalis, E., see Jouannaud, J.-P. 57

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Kowalski, R.A. 65, 285, 310, 522, 532, 671,

672, 674, 684, 687, 694, 699, 701, 810

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Kowalski, R.A., see Gelfond, M. 698, 793

Kowalski, R.A., see Sadri, F. 674

Koymans, R. 524

Kozen, D. 527

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Kozen, D.C., see Chandra, A.K. 517 Krajcik, J., see Jackson, S. 385

Kranakis, E., see Kirousis, L.M. 111

Kraus, S. 268, 270

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Kraus, S., see Wooldridge, M.J. 277

Krebsbach, K.D., see Goldman, R.P. 862

Kripke, S.A. 621

Krishnamurthy, B. 106

Krishnan, S.C., see Alur, R. 913

Krishnan, T., see McLachlan, G.J. 496

Krizanc, D., see Kirousis, L.M. 111

Kroc, L. 112

Kroese, M., see Dastani, M. 881

Kröger, F. 529 Krogh, A. 473

Krokhin, A.A. 579

Kruskal, J.B. 39, 49

Kuchcinski, K., see Doherty, P. 870

Kudenko, D., see Heinsohn, J. 150

Kuehlmann, A., see Chai, D. 105

Kuehne, S. 374, 387

Kuehne, S., see Forbus, K.D. 372, 386

Kuhn, W., see Egenhofer, M.J. 551, 553

Kuhn, W., see Faltings, B. 553

Kuhn, W., see Ferguson, R.W. 554

Kuhn, W., see Hernández, D. 568, 569 Kuhn, W., see Mark, D.M. 582

Kuhn, W., see Schlieder, C. 566

Kuhn, W., see Zimmermann, K. 568, 570 Kuiper, R., see Barringer, H. 521, 522

Kuipers, B.J. 367, 370, 371, 380, 381, 387,

553, 583, 614, 618

Kuipers, B.J., see Bobrow, D.G. 370

Kuipers, B.J., see Dvorak, D. 426

Kuipers, B.J., see Remolina, E. 553

Kullback, S. 487

Küng, J., see Cicekli, N.K. 699, 701

Kupferman, O., see Alur, R. 517, 526, 910

Kurien, J., see de Kleer, J.D. 438

Kurtonina, N. 157, 159

Kurucz, A., see Gabbay, D.M. 890

Kurucz, A., see Gabelaia, D. 524, 575

Küsters, R. 169

Küsters, R., see Baader, F. 138, 162, 169

Küsters, R., see Brandt, S. 169

Kuwabara, K., see Yokoo, M. 201

Kvarnström, J. 711–713, 717, 719, 737, 742, 747–749

Kvarnström, J., see Doherty, P. 711–713, 717,

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Kvarnström, J., see Gustafsson, J. 712

Kwiatkowska, M.Z. 533

Kwok, R., see Peppas, P. 352, 353

Kyberg Jr., H.E., see Schubert, L.K. 654, 694,

710, 712

Kyckelhahn, B., see Klenk, M. 383

Laburthe, F., see Caseau, Y. 202

Labuschagne, W., see Meyer, T. 353

Lacatusu, F., see Moldovan, D. 782 Lackinger, F., see Friedrich, G. 423

Lacy, L. 168

Ladkin, P.B. 523, 578

Ladner, R.E., see Fischer, M.J. 146, 154

Lafortune, S., see Sampath, M. 429, 430, 446

Laguna, M., see Glover, F. 188

Laird, P., see Minton, S. 107, 187

Lakemeyer, G. 277, 874, 881

Lakemeyer, G., see Burgard, W. 881

Lakemeyer, G., see Ferrein, A. 870, 880, 881

Lakemeyer, G., see Grosskreutz, H. 871, 872,

881

Lakemeyer, G., see Halpern, J.Y. 72, 277

Lakemeyer, G., see Thrun, S. 551, 872

Lalas, E.G., see Kaporis, A.C. 111

Lallouet, A., see Benedetti, M. 120

Lam, W. 497

Lamperti, G. 430 Lamport, L. 531

Lamport, L., see Abadi, M. 532

Landver, A., see Armoni, R. 534

Lang, J., see Asher, N. 572

Lang, J., see Benferhat, S. 276

Lang, J., see Delgrande, J.P. 346 Lang, J., see Dubois, D. 276 Lang, J., see Fargier, H. 194 Lang, J., see Konieczny, S. 349

Lankford, D. 48, 52

Lankford, D., see Huet, G. 47, 49

Lansky, A.L., see Georgeff, M.P. 897

Lansky, A.L., see Lifschitz, V. 909, 919

Larkin, D., see Dechter, R. 479, 480

Laroussinie, F. 521

Larrabee, T., see Konuk, H. 89

Larranaga, P., see Inza, I. 494

Larrosa, J. 195, 196

Larsen, K.G. 533

Larsen, K.G., see Behrmann, G. 533

Laskey, K.B. 489, 491

Lassez, J.-L., see Jouannaud, J.-P. 55

Lassez, J.L., see Jaffar, J. 199

Lassila, O. 824

Lassila, O., see Berners-Lee, T. 823

Lau, R.Y.K. 353

Laughery, K., see Green, B. 780

Lauritzen, S.L. 476, 477, 496

Lauritzen, S.L., see Cowell, R.G. 477

Lauritzen, S.L., see Jensen, F.V. 476, 477

Lauser, B., see Soergel, D. 168

Laux, A., see van Linder, B. 902

Law, Y.C. 193

Leask, T.S., see Vaghani, J. 285

Le Berre, D. 90

Le Berre, D., see Benferhat, S. 349

Le Bras, M., see Hartley, S. 386

Le Clair, S. 383

Le Pape, C., see Baptiste, P. 202

Lee, J. 761

Lee, J., see Akman, V. 700, 761

Lee, J., see Ferraris, P. 309

Lee, J., see Giunchiglia, E. 697, 761, 763,

767, 768, 770, 871

Lee, J.H.M., see Cheng, B.M.W. 192

Lee, J.H.M., see Law, Y.C. 193

Lee, K., see Meyer, T. 169

Lee, R., see Chang, C. 34

Lee, S.-J. 29, 58

Lee, S.-J., see Plaisted, D.A. 21

Leech, J., see Knuth, D.E. 43, 47, 48

Leenen, L., see Meyer, T. 353

Lehmann, D. 270, 271, 346

Lehmann, D., see Freund, M. 344

Lehmann, D., see Kraus, S. 268, 270

Lehmann, D., see Schlechta, K. 346

Lehmann, F. 553, 565, 572

Lehmann, H., see Shwe, M. 489

Lehrer, A., see Fillmore, C. 814

Lehrer, K., see Cartwright, R. 562

Leibler, R.A., see Kullback, S. 487

Leitch, R., see Shen, Q. 367

Leitsch, A. 34

Leitsch, A., see Baaz, M. 517

Leitsch, A., see Caferra, R. 22

Leitsch, A., see Sattler, U. 155

Leitsch, A., see Stenz, G. 29

Lemaître, M., see Verfaillie, G. 195

LeMay, H.E., see Brown, T.L. 617

Lembo, D., see Acciarri, A. 139

Lembo, D., see Calvanese, D. 139

Lemmer, J.F., see Fung, R. 486

Lemmer, J.F., see Henrion, M. 471

Lemmer, J.F., see Shachter, R.D. 486

Lemmon, E.J. 520

Lemon, O., see Pratt, I. 555

Lenat, D.B. 62, 813, 937

Lenat, D.B., see Matuszek, C. 71

Lenzen, W. 621

Lenzerini, M., see Acciarri, A. 139

Lenzerini, M., see Borgida, A. 166

Lenzerini, M., see Cadoli, M. 266

Lenzerini, M., see Calvanese, D. 135, 139,

146, 155, 166, 169

Lenzerini, M., see De Giacomo, G. 139, 145, 154, 156

Lenzerini, M., see Donini, F.M. 138, 139, 169

Leonard, T., see Bjesse, P. 89

Leone, N. 286, 297

Leone, N., see Buccafurri, F. 286

Leone, N., see Eiter, T. 286, 862

Leone, N., see Faber, W. 286

Leone, N., see Franconi, E. 66

Leone, N., see Gelfond, M. 300

Leone, N., see Gottlob, G. 191

Leone, N., see Kakas, A.C. 699, 700

Lepar, V. 477

Lescanne, P., see Jouannaud, J.-P. 39, 49

Lespérance, Y. 873, 881, 906

Lespérance, Y., see de Giacomo, G. 871, 877, 879

Lespérance, Y., see Levesque, H.J. 651, 862,

877, 906

Lespérance, Y., see Shapiro, S. 353, 873

Lespérance, Y., see van der Hoek, W. 906

Lettmann, T., see Kleine-Büning, H. 117

Letz, R. 36, 59, 118

Letz, R., see Stenz, G. 29

Leue, S., see van der Hoek, W. 909

Levesque, H.J. 90, 276, 651, 862, 869, 872,

877, 893, 906

Levesque, H.J., see Bacchus, F. 872

Levesque, H.J., see Brachman, R.J. 67, 90, 136, 138, 174, 177–179, 934

Levesque, H.J., see Cohen, P.R. 781, 891,

893–895, 897, 903

Levesque, H.J., see de Giacomo, G. 871, 872,

875, 877, 879

Levesque, H.J., see Lakemeyer, G. 277

Levesque, H.J., see Lespérance, Y. 873, 906 Levesque, H.J., see Lifschitz, V. 772 Levesque, H.J., see Lin, F. 662

Levesque, H.J., see Liu, Y. 875

Levesque, H.J., see Minker, J. 285

Levesque, H.J., see Mitchell, D.G. 90, 110

Levesque, H.J., see Petrick, R. 645

Levesque, H.J., see Randell, D.A. 558, 563

Levesque, H.J., see Sandewall, E. 714

Levesque, H.J., see Scherl, R.B. 645, 862,

872, 873

Levesque, H.J., see Schmidt-Schauß, M. 138

Levesque, H.J., see Selman, B. 89, 90, 107,

188

Levesque, H.J., see Shanahan, M. 701

Levesque, H.J., see Shapiro, S. 353, 873

Levin, L. 91

Levinson, R.A. 223, 234

Levitt, T.S., see Henrion, M. 471

Levy, A., see Nayak, P. 611, 616

Levy, A.Y. 169

Lévy, F. 700

Levy, J.-J., see Kamin, S. 40, 48

Lewerentz, C., see Beyer, D. 533

Lewis, D. 327, 630

Lex, W., see Sowa, J.F. 223

Leyton-Brown, K., see Nudelman, E. 89, 117

Li, C.M. 89, 106, 115

Li, C.M., see Habet, D. 107

Li, H., see Zhang, D. 353

Li, S. 565

Li, X.Y. 89, 107

Liang, A., see Soergel, D. 168

Liberatore, P. 348, 349

Lichtenstein, O. 521

Lierler, Y., see Giunchiglia, E. 286

Liffiton, M.H., see Darga, P.T. 105

Lifschitz, V. 19, 69, 243, 260, 262, 264–267,

274, 275, 297, 299, 615, 654, 675, 684–687, 689, 694, 732, 733, 735, 737, 761, 766, 772,

773, 876, 909, 919

Lifschitz, V., see Akman, V. 700, 761

Lifschitz, V., see Bar-Hillel, Y. 67, 70

Lifschitz, V., see Brewka, G. 416

Lifschitz, V., see Campbell, J. 761

Lifschitz, V., see Dimopoulos, Y. 698, 700 Lifschitz, V., see Dogandag, S. 761

Lifschitz, V., see Ferraris, P. 286, 292, 309

Lifschitz, V., see Fisher, M. 428

Lifschitz, V., see Gelfond, M. 89, 253, 265,

285, 286, 291, 303, 309, 697, 698, 770, 793,

796, 813, 843

Lifschitz, V., see Giunchiglia, E. 697, 711,

735, 761, 763, 767, 768, 770, 771, 843, 862,

871

Lifschitz, V., see Halpern, J.Y. 908

Lifschitz, V., see Kartha, G.N. 735

Lifschitz, V., see Lee, J. 761

Lifschitz, V., see Lin, F. 448

Lifschitz, V., see McCarthy, J. 285

Lifschitz, V., see Mueller, E. 810

Lifschitz, V., see Reiter, R. 651, 654, 656, 862

Ligozat, G. 523, 556, 567, 577, 579, 580

Ligozat, G., see Renz, J. 576, 577, 579

Limongelli, C., see Mayer, M.C. 532

Lin, A., see Cohen, P.R. 62, 73

Lin, A., see Youn, P. 60

Lin, F. 277, 286, 297, 448, 513, 522, 651,

653, 654, 656–662, 666, 667, 694, 731, 735,

737, 742, 761, 814, 874, 876

Lin, F., see Lespérance, Y. 873, 906

Lin, F., see Levesque, H.J. 651, 862, 877, 906

Lin, K., see Farley, A. 384

Lin, S. 107

Lin, Y. 484

Linder, B. 873

Linder, B., see van der Hoek, W. 873

Lindstrom, S. 336, 353

Linton, S., see Gent, I.P. 106

Linton, S., see Roney-Dougal, C. 193

Lisitsa, A., see Degtyarev, A. 528

Little, J.A. 494

Littman, M.L. 120

Liu, C. 532

Liu, H. 813

Liu, J. 553, 570

Liu, Y. 567, 875

Lloyd, J.W. 197, 198

Lloyd, J.W., see Baader, F. 149

Lloyd, J.W., see Lifschitz, V. 243

Löchner, B., see Gaillourdet, J.-M. 43

Löckenhoff, C., see Valente, A. 934

Logemann, G., see Davis, M. 21, 24, 30, 92,

185

Lomuscio, A. 644, 909

Lomuscio, A., see Raimondi, F. 909

Long, D. 749

Long, D., see Fox, M. 106, 532, 870

Long, D.E., see Burch, J.R. 533

Lopez, A., see Balbiani, B. 569

Loui, R.P., see Chesñevar, C.I. 277

Loui, R.P., see Schubert, L.K. 654, 694, 710,

712

Loui, R.P., see Simari, G.R. 277

Loveland, D.W. 20, 22, 34, 36

Loveland, D.W., see Davis, M. 21, 24, 30, 92,

185

Loveland, D.W., see Gelernter, H. 37 Lovett, A., see Tomai, E. 383

Lowe, J., see Baker, C. 387

Lowry, M.R., see Smith, D.R. 59

Lowry, M.R., see Stickel, M.E. 59 Lozano, J., see Inza, I. 494 Lozano-Perez, T. 615 Luby, M. 116

Luby, M., see Dagum, P. 485

Luciano, J., see Ruttenberg, A. 168

Luck, M., see d’Inverno, M. 897

Lugrin, J., see Hartley, S. 386

Lui, C.N., see Chow, C.K. 497

Lukasiewicz, T., see Eiter, T. 169, 310, 761

Lukaszewicz, W. 242, 252

Lukaszewicz, W., see Doherty, P. 265

Łukaszewicz, W., see Doherty, P. 685, 686,

710, 712, 731, 733

Luks, E.M., see Crawford, J.M. 105

Luks, E.M., see Dixon, H.E. 106

Luks, G., see Crawford, J.M. 193

Lundell, M. 374

Lunze, J., see Biswas, G. 438

Lusk, E., see Boyer, R. 58

Lusk, E., see Marek, V.W. 253, 274

Lusk, E., see Wos, L. 34

Lutz, C. 143, 150, 154, 155

Lutz, C., see Baader, F. 139, 146, 155, 161,

163, 165, 169

Lutz, C., see Kontchakov, R. 530

Lutz, C., see Walther, D. 916

Lynce, I. 102, 117

Lynch, C., see Bachmair, L. 43

Ma, J. 519, 522

Ma, L., see Kershenbaum, A. 168

Ma, W., see Orgun, M. 532

MacCartney, B. 65

MacGregor, R. 138

Machado, B. 385

Macii, E., see Bahar, R.I. 479

MacIntyre, E., see Gent, I.P. 186

MacKay, D.J.C., see Frey, B.J. 486, 487

MacKenzie, P.D. 103

Mackworth, A.K. 182, 183, 185, 191, 577

Mackworth, A.K., see de Kleer, J.D. 408,

410, 411, 413, 414, 458

MacNish, C., see Williams, M.-A. 334, 335 Madalinska-Bugaj, E., see Doherty, P.´ 712

Maddux, R., see Ladkin, P.B. 523

Madhusudan, P., see Alur, R. 517, 518

Madigan, C.F., see Moskewicz, M.W. 89, 94,

95, 97, 100, 116

Madigan, C.F., see Zhang, L. 97, 99, 100

Madigan, D., see Hanks, S. 535

Mador-Haim, S., see Armoni, R. 534

Magee, D., see Cohn, A.G. 383

Magee, D., see Needham, C. 383

Magee, D.R., see Galata, A. 583

Magidor, M., see Kraus, S. 268, 270

Magidor, M., see Lehmann, D. 270, 271

Magidor, M., see Schlechta, K. 346

Magnini, B., see Bar-Haim, R. 806

Magnini, M., see Dagan, I. 806, 813 Magnusson, M., see Kvarnström, J. 713, 749

Maguitman, A.G., see Chesñevar, C.I. 277

Maher, M.J., see Antoniou, G. 276

Maher, M.J., see Jaffar, J. 197

Maher, M.J., see Thornton, J.R. 530

Mahoney, S.M., see Laskey, K.B. 491

Maibaum, T., see Stirling, C. 529 Maier, D. 472

Mailharro, D., see Junker, U. 202

Maiorano, S., see Clark, C. 782, 783, 790, 792

Majercik, S.M., see Littman, M.L. 120

Majumdar, A.K., see Sowa, J.F. 223

Makatchev, M., see Jordan, P. 386

Makinson, D. 242, 252, 270, 272, 298, 321, 346, 353

Makinson, D., see Alchourron, C. 317, 319,

322, 324, 331

Makinson, D., see Alchourrón, C.E. 902

Makinson, D., see Gärdenfors, P. 325, 326, 353

Malik, S., see Moskewicz, M.W. 89, 94, 95,

97, 100, 116

Malik, S., see Zhang, L. 97, 99, 100, 118

Mallot, H.A. 551

Mandler, J., see Dubois, O. 111

Maneva, E.N. 112

Mang, F.Y.C., see Alur, R. 517, 913

Manna, Z. 528, 529, 531, 635, 666, 907

Manna, Z., see Abadi, M. 530, 532

Manna, Z., see Bjørner, N. 532

Manna, Z., see Halpern, J.Y. 519, 523

Manna, Z., see Kesten, Y. 518, 522

Manna, Z., see Moszkowski, B. 519

Mannila, H., see Eiter, T. 293

Manning, C. 73

Manning, C., see Haghighi, A. 813

Manolios, P., see Kaufmann, M. 20, 22, 57, 60

Mántaras, R.L. de, see Baral, C. 863

Mappus IV, R.L., see Ferguson, R.W. 554

Maratea, M., see Babovich, Y. 286, 297

Maratea, M., see Giunchiglia, E. 286

Marcu, D., see Lespérance, Y. 906

Marcus, S. 930

Marcus, S., see McDermott, J. 930, 934

Marek, V.W. 242, 247, 249, 251–253, 255,

258, 260, 273, 274, 285, 286, 309

Marek, V.W., see Cholewinski, P.´ 249

Marek, V.W., see Denecker, M. 274

Margaria, T., see Vardi, M.Y. 913

Marinescu, R. 480 Mark, D.M. 582

Mark, D.M., see Bittner, T. 572

Mark, D.M., see Egenhofer, M.J. 551, 553

Mark, D.M., see Roy, A.J.O. 565

Markert, K., see Bos, J. 62, 806, 808, 809 Markey, N., see Laroussinie, F. 521 Markov, I.L., see Aloul, F.A. 105

Markov, I.L., see Darga, P.T. 105

Markov, Z., see Mueller, E.T. 700

Marques-Silva, J.P. 89, 94, 95, 97, 100, 106

Marques-Silva, J.P., see Baptista, L. 104, 115

Marques-Silva, J.P., see Lynce, I. 102, 117

Marquis, P., see Amilhastre, J. 202

Marquis, P., see Darwiche, A. 120

Marquis, P., see Konieczny, S. 349

Marriott, K. 182, 197, 198

Mars, N.J.I., see Speel, P.-H. 150

Mars, N.J.I., see Vatcheva, I. 443

Marshall, C.R., see Clark, H.H. 622, 630

Martelli, A. 30

Martin, P.A., see Hobbs, J.R. 61

Marx, M. 524

Marx, M., see Areces, C. 146, 155, 528

Masini, G., see Mohr, R. 183

Maslov, S.Ju. 19

Masolo, C. 555

Masolo, C., see Borgo, S. 555, 558, 570

Masolo, C., see Oltramari, A. 939

Masolo, M., see Borgo, S. 570, 571

Mason, M. 607

Massacci, F., see Donini, F.M. 147, 155

Masterman, M. 213

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Mateis, C., see Eiter, T. 286

Matejka, R., see Le Clair, S. 383

Matsuo, T. 386

Matthews, G., see Curtis, J. 813

Matthews, G., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Matuszek, C. 62, 63, 71

Mavrovouniotis, M. 568, 570

May, W. 530

Maybury, M. 780

Mayer, M.C. 525, 532

Mayer, W. 457

Maynard-Reid, P., see Amir, E. 62

Mays, E. 138

Mazure, B. 107

Mazure, B., see Ostrowski, R. 89

McAllester, D.A. 107

McAllester, D.A., see Baumgartner, P. 29

McAllester, D.A., see Benhamou, F. 200

McAllester, D.A., see Ginsberg, M.L. 107

McAllester, D.A., see Horrocks, I. 139, 149,

155

McAllester, D.A., see Kapur, D. 57

McAllester, D.A., see Selman, B. 700

McAloon, K., see Gomes, C.P. 89, 113

McBride, B., see Hayes, P.J. 218

McBurney, P., see Wooldridge, M.J. 277

McCain, N.C. 304, 654, 694, 735, 737, 761, 767

McCain, N.C., see Giunchiglia, E. 697, 761,

763, 767, 768, 770, 871

McCain, N.C., see Lifschitz, V. 761

McCarthy, J. 3, 60, 61, 67, 69, 240, 260, 282,

285, 309, 369, 649, 651, 653, 656, 660, 684,

689, 709, 731, 732, 737, 756, 759, 776, 906

McCarthy, J., see Bar-Hillel, Y. 67, 70

McCarthy, J., see Hayes, P.J. 303, 310

McCartney, R., see Smith, D.R. 59

McCloskey, S., see Düntsch, I. 575, 576

McCune, W.W. 20, 22, 43

McCune, W.W., see Boyer, R. 58

McDermott, D.V. 67, 69, 70, 213, 252, 258,

273, 274, 522, 843, 871

McDermott, D.V., see Hanks, S. 69, 653, 686,

731, 772

McDermott, J. 930, 934

McDermott, J., see Andreassen, S. 489

McDermott, J., see Marcus, S. 930

McDermott, J.P., see Shoham, Y. 709

McEliece, R.J. 488

McEliece, R.J., see Aji, S.M. 488

McGeoch, L.A., see Johnson, D.S. 108, 188

McGregor, J.J. 185

McGuinness, D.L. 166

McGuinness, D.L., see Baader, F. 55, 135,

139, 144, 147, 149, 150, 154, 169–171, 528

McGuinness, D.L., see Bennett, B. 571

McGuinness, D.L., see Brachman, R.J. 169

McGuinness, D.L., see Fensel, D. 142

McGuinness, D.L., see Hazarika, S.M. 582 McGuinness, D.L., see Patel-Schneider, P.F.

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McIlraith, S.A. 443

McIlraith, S.A., see Amir, E. 64

McIlraith, S.A., see Choueiry, B. 616

McIlraith, S.A., see Knublauch, H. 168, 169

McIlraith, S.A., see MacCartney, B. 65

McKinsey, J.C.C., see Tarski, A. 570

McLachlan, G.J. 496

McMillan, K.L. 533

McMillan, K.L., see Burch, J.R. 22, 533

McRobbie, M.A., see Ohlbach, H.-J. 265

Meathrel, R.C. 569

Meek, C., see Geiger, D. 487

Mehlhorn, K. 184

Mehrotra, M., see Hayes, P.J. 65

Meiri, I., see Dechter, R. 200, 523

Mejino, J.V.L., see Rosse, C. 939

Melham, T.F., see Gordon, M.J. 22, 56

Melliar-Smith, P.M., see Schwartz, R.L. 519 Mellish, C.S., see Clocksin, W.F. 897 Meltzer, B., see Buchanan, B.G. 617

Meltzer, B., see Burstall, R.M. 666

Meltzer, B., see Gardin, F. 609, 616

Meltzer, B., see Hayes, P.J. 303, 310

Meltzer, B., see McCarthy, J. 67, 240, 649, 651, 653, 684, 759, 906

Meltzer, B., see Sandewall, E. 241 Mendelzon, A., see Katsuno, H. 343, 349, 352

Menzel, C., see Hayes, P.J. 218, 231

Merz, S. 528

Meseguer, J., see Hendrix, J. 43

Meseguer, P. 195

Meseguer, P., see Larrosa, J. 195

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Meyer, A.R., see Stockmeyer, L.J. 118, 153

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Meyer, J.-J.Ch., see Linder, B. 873, 891, 899,

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Meyer, J.-J.Ch., see Ryan, M. 914

Meyer, J.-J.Ch., see van der Hoek, W. 873,

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Meyer, M.A. 942

Meyer, M.A., see Wallace, R.J. 195

Meyer, T. 169, 353

Meyer, T., see Booth, R. 346

Meyer, T., see Chopra, S. 348

Mézard, M. 89, 111, 112

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Pacheco, J. 570

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Pauly, M. 910, 912, 914, 916, 920

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Peled, D., see Katz, S. 517

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Peltason, C. 138

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Penberthy, J.S. 842

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Pencole, Y. 430

Penczek, W. 517, 533

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Peot, M.A. 861

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Peppas, P. 327, 336–338, 352, 353

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Pesant, G. 202

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Petcu, A. 201, 202

Peters, S., see Buvac, S. 63

Peterson, G.E. 51, 52

Petit, T. 197

Petrick, R. 645, 861

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Petrie, K.E. 105

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Pfeifer, G., see Faber, W. 286

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Pham, D.N. 107, 109, 574

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Philips, A.B., see Minton, S. 187

Picardi, C. 456

Piera, N., see Trave-Massuyes, L. 369

Pike, L. 60

Pinto, J.A. 674, 871

Pipatsrisawat, K. 89, 94 Pirri, F. 664, 870, 872

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Pirri, F., see Lifschitz, V. 772

Pirri, F., see Lin, F. 662

Pirri, F., see Minker, J. 285

Pirri, F., see Shanahan, M. 701

Pirrone, M., see Finzi, A. 881

Pischel, M., see Fischer, K. 897

Pistore, M. 842, 862

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Pitassi, T., see Buresh-Oppenheim, J. 101

Pitassi, T., see Littman, M.L. 120

Pitassi, T., see Sang, T. 120

Pitt, J., see Artikis, A. 761

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Plaisted, D.A., see Dershowitz, N. 43, 53

Plaisted, D.A., see Lee, S.-J. 29, 58

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Pliuskevicius, R. 529, 530

Plotkin, G. 54

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Pnueli, A. 515, 517, 520, 529, 531, 532, 906

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Pnueli, A., see Ben-Ari, M. 146

Pnueli, A., see Gabbay, D. 515, 523, 529, 531

Pnueli, A., see Kesten, Y. 518, 522, 529

Pnueli, A., see Lichtenstein, O. 521

Pnueli, A., see Manna, Z. 528, 529, 531, 635,

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Pnueli, A., see Rosner, R. 523

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Polkowski, L. 572

Pollack, M.E., see Bratman, M.E. 894, 896,

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Pollack, M.E., see Cohen, P.R. 893

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Pollock, J.L. 277

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Pontelli, E., see Son, T.C. 286

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Poole, D. 250, 432, 433, 471, 479, 491–493

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Popkorn, S. 890

Popper, K. 70

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Porter, B.W., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Porter, B.W., see Gelfond, M. 89, 793, 813

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Porter, B.W., see Rector, A.L. 65

Porter, B.W., see Rickel, J. 379

Posegga, J., see D’Agostino, M. 530

Post, E. 4, 7

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Pradhan, M. 489

Prakken, H. 277

Prasad, M.R. 533

Prats, F., see Rovira, X. 384

Prats, F., see Trave-Massuyes, L. 369

Pratt, I. 555, 563, 571

Pratt-Hartmann, I. 531, 555

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Pratt-Hartmann, I., see Bennett, B. 558

Pratt-Hartmann, I., see Renz, J. 570

Prawitz, D. 19

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Prestwich, S.D. 107, 109

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Provost, J., see Kuipers, B.J. 583

Prud’hommeaux, E. 830, 835, 836

Pryor, L. 861

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Pylyshyn, Z. 876

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Quaife, A. 58

Quantz, J.J., see Lévy, F. 700

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Quimper, C.-G. 201 Quine, W.V.O. 218

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Rajagopalan, R. 582, 617

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Ramachandran, D. 63

Ramakrishnan, I.V. 20, 21, 33

Ramakrishnan, K., see Kamath, A. 107

Ramakrishnan, N. 384

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Rescher, N. 520

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Riazanov, A., see Hustadt, U. 532

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Schuurmans, D. 107

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Shanahan, M. 69, 303, 572, 615, 671,

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699–701, 709, 714, 731, 737, 810

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Vecchi, M., see Kirkpatrick, S. 109

Velev, M.N. 89

Vellino, A., see Older, W.J. 199

Veloso, M.M., see Acciarri, A. 139

Veloso, M.M., see Calvanese, D. 139

Veloso, M.M., see Jensen, R.M. 862

Veloso, M.M., see Matuszek, C. 71

Veloso, M.M., see Shanahan, M. 671, 683

Venema, Y. 523

Venema, Y., see Blackburn, P. 157, 520, 890

Venkatesh, G. 530

Verfaillie, G. 195

Verfaillie, G., see Bistarelli, S. 195

Verfaillie, G., see Schiex, T. 186, 194

Verma, T. 472

Verma, T., see Geiger, D. 472

Vermeir, D., see Heymans, S. 288

Vidal, V. 532

Vieu, L. 555

Vieu, L., see Asher, N. 558, 563, 564

Vieu, L., see Aurnague, M. 554, 563, 570

Vieu, L., see Masolo, C. 555

Vigneron, L., see Jacquemard, F. 43

Vikatos, T., see Chantler, M. 425

Vila, L. 514, 519, 531

Vila, L., see Baral, C. 709

Vila, L., see Fisher, M. 514, 537, 539–543,

547–550

Vila, L., see Frost, D. 113

Vila, L., see Reichgelt, H. 522

Vila, L., see Schwalb, E. 523

Vilain, M. 200 Visser, W. 534

Vlissides, J., see Gamma, E. 934

Vogt, F.H., see Schwartz, R.L. 519

Volz, R., see Grosof, B.N. 834 Vomlel, J. 480

Vomlel, J., see Savicky, P. 480

Voorhees, E.M. 73, 780

Voronkov, A. 513

Voronkov, A., see Baader, F. 54

Voronkov, A., see Bachmair, L. 38, 530

Voronkov, A., see Bockmayr, A. 55

Voronkov, A., see Bundy, A. 57

Voronkov, A., see Calvanese, D. 135

Voronkov, A., see Chou, S.C. 55

Voronkov, A., see Comon, H. 57

Voronkov, A., see Degtyarev, A. 19

Voronkov, A., see Dershowitz, N. 43

Voronkov, A., see Dix, J. 249, 260

Voronkov, A., see Franconi, E. 66

Voronkov, A., see Hähnle, R. 36

Voronkov, A., see Horrocks, I. 139, 149, 155

Voronkov, A., see Hustadt, U. 532

Voronkov, A., see Korovin, K. 53

Voronkov, A., see Letz, R. 36, 59

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Voronkov, A., see Ramakrishnan, I.V. 20, 21,

33

Voronkov, A., see Riazanov, A. 20, 21

Voronkov, A., see Robinson, J.A. 22, 75, 88,

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Voronkov, A., see Weidenbach, C. 59

Vreeswijk, G. 277

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Wagner, T. 553

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Wah, B.W. 107

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Waidner, M., see Sprenger, C. 60

Wainwright, M.J. 489

Wainwright, M.J., see Maneva, E.N. 112

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Wallace, M. 199

Wallace, R.J. 195

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Walsh, T. 105, 113, 116, 187, 201, 513, 523,

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Walsh, T., see Fahle, T. 193

Walsh, T., see Flener, P. 192, 193

Walsh, T., see Frisch, A. 193

Walsh, T., see Gent, I.P. 107, 112, 186

Walsh, T., see Giunchiglia, F. 611

Walsh, T., see Hoos, H.H. 89

Walsh, T., see Hustadt, U. 146 Walsh, T., see Kilby, P. 115

Walsh, T., see Kiziltan, Z. 201

Walsh, T., see MacCartney, B. 65

Walsh, T., see Quimper, C.-G. 201

Walsh, T., see Rossi, F. 406, 418 Walsh, T., see Santos, P. 554

Walsh, T., see Schlobach, S. 169

Walsh, T., see Slaney, J.K. 115

Walsh, T., see Smith, B. 193

Walther, D. 916

Walukiewicz, I., see Janin, D. 156

Walukiewicz, I., see Thiagarajan, P.S. 517,

532

Wang, J., see Düntsch, I. 575, 576 Wang, J., see Jeroslow, R.G. 94

Wang, K., see Delgrande, J.P. 286 Wang, K., see Schaub, T. 252

Wang, S., see Bettini, C. 517, 535

Wang, X., see Liu, Y. 567

Wang, Y. 65

Wansing, H., see van Linder, B. 902

Warren, D.S. 861

Warren, D.S., see Chen, W. 218, 285, 296

Warren, D.S., see Pinto, J.A. 674

Wassermann, R. 353

Watson, R., see Nogueira, M. 70, 286, 306

Way, E.C. 235

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Webber, B.L., see Clark, H.H. 622, 630

Weber, A. 353

Weber, R., see Sachenbacher, M. 458

Wegman, M.N., see Paterson, M. 30

Wehage, R.A. 616

Wei, W. 121

Weida, R., see Mays, E. 138

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Weiss, Y., see Yedidia, J.S. 486, 488, 489

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618, 861

Weld, D.S., see Gelsey, A. 615

Weld, D.S., see Penberthy, J.S. 842

Weld, D.S., see Smith, D.E. 861

Weld, D.S., see Sun, Y. 449

Welling, M. 488, 489

Wellman, M.P. 490

Welty, C.A., see Cohn, A.G. 553

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Welty, C.A., see Guarino, N. 941

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Welty, C.A., see Rector, A. 939

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Wender, K.F., see Renz, J. 582

Wenzel, M., see Nipkow, T. 60

Werner, E., see Jennings, N.R. 893

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Wessel, M., see Haarslev, V. 554

Weyhrauch, R.W. 750

Whalley, P., see Forbus, K.D. 372, 386

White, B. 387

White, G. 761

White, G., see Varzi, A.C. 558

Whitehead, A.N. 67, 558, 563

Wiedermann, J., see Janin, D. 156

Wiegerinck, W. 487, 489

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Wielinga, B.J. 934

Wielinga, B.J., see de Koning, K. 386

Wielinga, B.J., see Schreiber, A.Th. 930, 931,

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Wieringa, R.J., see Meyer, J.-J.Ch. 905

Wiklund, K., see Doherty, P. 870

Wilk, J. 701

Wilke, T., see Thérien, D. 521

Wilkerson, R.W., see Greiner, R. 412

Wilkins, D., see Wielinga, B.J. 934

Williams, A., see Hazarika, S.M. 582

Williams, B. 366, 417, 420, 423, 431, 453,

455, 458

Williams, B., see Kim, P. 453

Williams, B.C., see de Kleer, J.D. 97, 407,

408, 410, 417, 418, 420, 445

Williams, C., see Hogg, T. 112, 113

Williams, M., see Peppas, P. 327, 352

Williams, M.-A. 334, 335, 341–343, 346,

348, 353

Williams, M.-A., see Benferhat, S. 349, 353

Williams, M.-A., see Bennett, B. 571

Williams, M.-A., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Williams, R. 90, 113, 114

Willsky, A.S., see Wainwright, M.J. 489

Wilson, D.B., see Bollobás, B. 111

Winslett, M. 350

Winslett, M., see Chou, T. 376

Winston, P.H., see Minsky, M. 67, 69, 71

Winter, J., see Bacchus, F. 89

Witbrock, M., see Friedland, N.S. 780

Witbrock, M.J., see Matuszek, C. 62, 63, 71

Witkowski, M., see Randell, D.A. 567

Witkowski, M., see Shanahan, M. 700, 701

Witkowski, M., see Shanahan, M.P. 870

Witlox, F., see Van de Weghe, N. 582 Wobcke, W., see Peppas, P. 353

Woldbye, M., see Andreassen, S. 489

Wolf, A., see Green, B. 780

Wolper, P. 520, 527, 530

Wolper, P., see Gerth, R. 533

Wolper, P., see Gribomont, P. 514

Wolper, P., see Sistla, A.P. 517, 527, 529, 533

Wolper, P., see Vardi, M.Y. 146, 156, 527

Wolter, F. 528, 529, 535, 575

Wolter, F., see Baader, F. 138, 155

Wolter, F., see Gabbay, D.M. 890

Wolter, F., see Gabelaia, D. 524, 575

Wolter, F., see Hodkinson, I. 514, 528, 529,

535

Wolter, F., see Kontchakov, R. 530

Wolter, F., see Walther, D. 916

Woltran, S., see Eiter, T. 299

Wong-Toi, H., see Henzinger, T.A. 525

Woods, W. 786

Woods, W.A. 138, 213

Wooldridge, M.J. 277, 781, 889, 897, 904,

907–909, 916

Wooldridge, M.J., see Agotnes, T. 916

Wooldridge, M.J., see d’Inverno, M. 897

Wooldridge, M.J., see Fischer, K. 897

Wooldridge, M.J., see Lespérance, Y. 906

Wooldridge, M.J., see Pauly, M. 910, 914

Wooldridge, M.J., see Rao, A.S. 897

Wooldridge, M.J., see Shanahan, M. 671, 683

Wooldridge, M.J., see van der Hoek, W. 513,

517, 909, 914, 916, 919

Wooldridge, M.J., see Walther, D. 916

Worboys, M.F. 551

Worboys, M.F., see Ferguson, R.W. 554

Wos, L. 34

Wos, L., see Boyer, R. 58

Wos, L., see McCune, W.W. 20, 22

Wos, L., see Robinson, G. 41

Wotawa, F. 457

Wotawa, F., see Fraser, G. 387

Wotawa, F., see Friedrich, G. 456

Wotawa, F., see Koeb, D. 457

Wright, J., see McGuinness, D.L. 166

Wrightson, G., see Davis, M. 19

Wu, J.C.K., see Cheng, B.M.W. 192

Wu, L., see Liu, Y. 567

Wu, W.-T. 55

Wu, Z. 107

Wuillemin, P., see Nielsen, T. 479 Wurtz, J., see Henz, M. 199

Xenos, M., see Stavrinoudis, D. 353

Xi, H., see Andrews, P.B. 20 Xing, E.P. 487

Yakhini, Z., see Friedman, N. 497

Yannakakis, M., see Alur, R. 517

Yao, X., see Doherty, P. 712

Yap, R., see Zhang, Y. 189

Yap, R.H.C., see Bessière, C. 183

Yeap, A.W.-K., see Kuipers, B.J. 553, 583

Yedidia, J.S. 486, 488, 489

Yi, W., see Behrmann, G. 533

Yi, W., see Bengtsson, J. 517

Yi, W., see Larsen, K.G. 533

Yi, W., see Vardi, M.Y. 913

Yildirim, M., see McEliece, R.J. 488

Yildirim, Y., see Cicekli, N.K. 699, 701

Ying, M., see Li, S. 565

Yip, K. 374

Yokoo, M. 201

Yolum, P. 701

York, J. 486

Yoshikawa, H., see Umeda, Y. 448

Yoshino, H., see Vila, L. 531

You, J., see Janhunen, T. 302

Youn, P. 60

Yovine, S., see Alur, R. 518, 525

Yovine, S., see Henzinger, T.A. 527

Yovine, S., see Tripakis, S. 533

Yovitz, M., see Woods, W. 786

Yuan, C. 486

Yuille, A.L. 489

Zach, R., see Baaz, M. 517

Zain, S., see Mustapha, S. 385

Zakharyaschev, M., see Gabbay, D.M. 890

Zakharyaschev, M., see Gabelaia, D. 524, 575

Zakharyaschev, M., see Hodkinson, I. 528, 529, 535

Zakharyaschev, M., see Kontchakov, R. 530

Zakharyaschev, M., see Wolter, F. 528, 529,

535, 575

Zalta, E.N. 888

Zanardo, A., see Sabbadin, M. 525

Zanella, M., see Lamperti, G. 430

Zaniolo, C., see Subrahmanian, V.S. 306

Zantema, H., see Endrullis, J. 49

Zantema, H., see Koprowski, A. 49

Zbar, Y., see Armoni, R. 534

Zdrahal, Z., see Motta, E. 932

Zecchina, R., see Braunstein, A. 112

Zecchina, R., see Mézard, M. 89, 111, 112 Zecchina, R., see Monasson, R. 111

Zelinsky-Wibbelt, C., see Aurnague, M. 554,

563

Zemankova, M., see Plaisted, D.A. 21

Zhang, D. 337–340, 345, 353

Zhang, H. 89, 94, 97, 117

Zhang, H., see Kapur, D. 53, 57

Zhang, L. 97, 99, 100, 118, 120

Zhang, L., see Moskewicz, M.W. 89, 94, 95,

97, 100, 116

Zhang, N.L. 475, 479

Zhang, N.L., see Poole, D. 471, 479

Zhang, S., see Golbreich, C. 168

Zhang, Y. 189, 353

Zhang, Y., see Bessière, C. 183

Zhao, F., see Bailley-Kellogg, C. 374, 384 Zhao, F., see Huang, X. 374

Zhao, J., see Baral, C. 863

Zhao, Y., see Baral, C. 307

Zhao, Y., see Lin, F. 286, 297, 814

Zhao, Y., see Moskewicz, M.W. 89, 94, 95,

97, 100, 116

Zhou, C. 524, 525

Zhu, W., see Zhang, D. 353

Zhu, Y., see Biere, A. 89, 533

Zhu, Y., see Plaisted, D.A. 22, 29

Zilbermann, B., see Picardi, C. 456

Zimmermann, K. 568, 570

Zowghi, D. 353

Zuck, L., see Lichtenstein, O. 521

Zuck, L.D., see Halpern, J.Y. 635

Zuckerman, D., see Luby, M. 116

Subject Index

3-consistency, 577 algebraic-closure algorithm, 577

3APL, 905 algebraically closed, 577

4-intersection, 565 algorithm design, 59

9-intersection, 565 Allen’s interval calculus, 551

=ˆ , 715, 721, 725 Alternating Temporal Logic, see temporal logic,

#P-complete, 120 ATL

alternating transition system, 914

a-closed, 577 Alternating-time Temporal Logic, 910, 913 A-Prolog, see Answer Set Prolog ambiguity, 366 abduction, 61, 70 Ambiguity Principle, 362 abductive diagnosis, 399, 431 Amphion, 59, 61 abductive explanation, 61 Andrews’ TPS prover, 56

abductive logic programming, 699 AnsProlog, see Answer Set Prolog

ability, 891, 900 answer set planning, 305

abnormality predicate, 68, 689 answer set programming, 66, 89, 286, 687, 698,

ABox, 136, 137, 141 700

absorption, 150 Answer Set Prolog, 285, 793 abstraction, 599, 611, 616 answer set semantics, 286 acceptance area, 568 answer set solvers, 286 accepted tree language, 159 answer sets, 288 ACL2, 20, 57, 60 argument systems, 277

action, 601, 605, 607, 649, 671, 715, 721, 890 arithmetic circuit, 481 symbol, 725 arity, 25

action languages, 303, 697, 770 articulation rules, 568

action model, 892 aspect, 701

action occurrence statement, 723, 727, 728, 731 assignment stack shrinking, 95 action precondition axiom, 663 associative path ordering, 53

action scenario, 709 associative–commutative unification, 54 action schema, see action type specification assumption, 6

action type specification, 718, 721, 727, 728 assumption classes, 377

actual event, 671 assumption-based truth-maintenance system,

acyclic automaton, 163 420

acyclic logic programs, 295 ASU QA system, 803 adjustment, 341 ATL, 910, 913

Advice Taker, 61, 67, 70 ATMS, 420 AGENT0 system, 905 atom, 23

agents, 887 atom definition expansion, 700

AgentSpeak(L) language, 905 atomic formula, 8

aggregates, 307 atomic relation, 556

AGM contraction function, 321 attainable envisionment, 380

AGM paradigm, 317 attitudes, 888

AGM postulates for belief contraction, 321 authorization, 889

AGM postulates for belief revision, 319 autocircumscription, 266

AGM revision function, 319 autoepistemic logic

ALC, 140, 161 computational complexity, 260 algebra of relations, 556 decidability, 258

987

decision methods, 260 extension, 274

tractability, 260

automata based approach, 155, 156 automated event calculus reasoning, 699 automated planning, 841 automated theorem prover, 59 automated theorem proving, 67, 70, 700 automaton acyclic, 163 looping, 158 tree, 158 word, 163

awareness, 643 axiom set BEC, 676 axiom set DEC, 681 axiom set EC, 680 axiom set OEC, 672 axiom set SEC, 674

axiomatic verification, 907

BACK, 138 backbone, 115 backbone identification, 941 backdoor, 113 strong, 114 sub-solver, 114 weak, 114

backjumping, 151, 186 conflict-directed, 94 fast, 95

backtrack search, 92 backward chaining, 66 base relation, 556

base-generated full meet contraction functions,

332 base-generated partial meet contraction functions, 333

basic action theory, 662, 664 basic AGM postulates for contraction, 321 basic AGM postulates for revision, 319 basic conflict, 411 basic event calculus, 676 basic paramodulation, 43 basic relations, 556 Bayesian networks, 467

BDI logic, 891

BDI model, 896

BEC, 676 Begriffsschrift, 214 behavior mode, 408 behavior model, 398 behavior modeling, 403 behavior prediction, 404 belief, 700, 896 belief base revision operations, 330 belief base revision schemes, 330 belief contraction, 320 belief-desire-intention model, 896 belief-goal compatibility, 903 Belief Merging, 348 belief propagation, 112, 486 belief set, 254 belief states, 343, 857 belief update, 350 Betty’s Brain, 385 binary decision diagrams, 21 binary relations, 556 bioinformatics, 384 Birkhoff’s theorem, 44 bisimulation, 157 blocking, 148 blocks world, 61, 649 bond graphs, 372

Boolean formula, see propositional formula Boolean satisfiability problem, 91 bound variable, 8 boundaries, 561 BP, see belief propagation branching factor, 578 branching temporal logic, see temporal logic, branching

branching time structures, 714 Brand’s modification method, 38 BRCC, 575

break count, 108 broad boundaries, 572 broken light example, 689 bucket elimination, 196 bug, hardware, 60 business system, 701

C/, 370

C, 370

C, 370

C+, 370

Can-predicate, 901 cancellation axiom, 689 Cannot-predicate, 901 canonical formation rules, 217, 223, 230 canonical term rewriting system, 47 capability, 900 Causal Calculator, 761, 767 causal completeness assumption, 656 causal constraint, 658, 683, 711 causal networks, 498 causal ordering, 375 causal reasoning, 374 across state transitions, 376 dynamical accounts, 375 properties of human, 375 structural accounts, 375

causal theories, 763 causality, 497, 601 cautious monotonicity, 298 cautious monotony, 270 cavity method, 112 CCG parser, 807 choice contraction, 339 chronological minimization, 654 Church–Rosser property, 46 circumscription, 3, 260, 684 computational complexity, 266 decidability, 264 filtered, 731 guess and verify, 264 in TAL, 710, 730 minimal model, 263 parallel, 262, 685, 686 pointwise, 266 preference relation, 263 prioritized, 266 second order formula, 261 specialized proof procedures, 265 tractability, 266 translation to first order logic, 265

CL, see clause learning proofs Clark’s completion, 295 clash, 148 class rewriting system, 50

CLASSIC, 138 clause, 23, 91 binary, 91 empty, 91 unit, 91

clause constraints, 580 clause form, 23, 25 clause learning, 94, 95 clause learning proofs, 102 clause linking method, 29 clause ordering, 62 clausification, 6

CLOCK, 616

closed default theory, 243 closed formula, 9 closed under constraints, 576 closed world assumption, 242, 250, 292, 598,

875 consistency, 251

closed world semantics, 831, 834 closure operator, 558

CLP, 197 CL-PC logic, 914, 919 cluster, 614 CNF, see conjunctive normal form

CNF encoding, 483

Coalition Logic, 910, 916

cogex, 790 cognitive robotics, 554, 869 cognitive validity, 582 cognitive vision, 383 collocation, 73

Combinatorial Categorial Grammar parser, 807 common knowledge, 622, 629–631

Common Logic, 213, 217, 218, 222, 223, 230, 232, 235

Common Logic Interchange Format (CLIF),

218, 219, 221–223, 228, 232 commonsense, 63, 67 commonsense knowledge, 782, 798 commonsense law of inertia, 675, 676, 679, 682,

692–696, 759, 769, 771, 799 commonsense psychology, 888 commonsense reasoning, 239, 700, 811 compiling Bayesian networks, 481 complete knowledge, 875 complete method, 32 completion forest, 147 completion in rewriting, 48 Completion Theorem, 767 completion tree, 147 component analysis, 600 component ontology, 372 component-oriented diagnosis, 422 component-oriented model, 408 component-oriented reconfiguration, 450 composition, 573, 575 composition of substitutions, 31 composition table, 552, 568, 576 compositional modeling, 376 Compositional Modeling Language, 370 compound event, 683 computation of conflicts, 420 computation of diagnoses, 418

Computation Tree Logic, see temporal logic,

CTL, 913 computations, 915 computing circumscription, 685 concept defined, 141, 163 description, 135, 140 primitive, 141, 163

concept maps, 385

conceptual graph (CG), 213, 214, 217, 223, 230,

233, 236 research extensions, 233, 234

Conceptual Graph Interchange Format (CGIF),

217–222, 224, 232, 235 core, 219, 220 extended, 219, 220

conceptual modeling, 405 conceptual neighbourhood, 564, 574, 582 conceptualization, 936 concrete domain, 143, 167

concurrency, 690 concurrent actions in TAL, 744

concurrent event, 690 condition, 688 conditional planning, 881 conditionalization, 341 conditionals, 353 conditioning, 477 configuration, 202, 401, 454, 603 configuration space, 383, 615 conflict, 97, 98, 411, 418, 893 conflict clause, 99 conflict clause minimization, 95 conflict-directed A*, 417, 453 conflict-directed backjumping, 186 conflict graph, 98 conflict literal, 98 conflict variable, 98 conflicting goals, 888 confluence, 366 confluent, 46 conformant planning, 857 congruence, 570 Conjunction Postulate, 345 conjunctive normal form, 91 connection, 558 connection method, 36 connection method of theorem proving, 20 connection relation, 561 consequent, 243 conservative extension, 6 consistency, 137, 141, 146 adaptive, 196 arc consistency, 183 bounds consistency, 183 generalized arc consistency, 183 hyper arc consistency, 183 local, 182 path consistency, 183, 190

consistency assumption, 656 consistency-based diagnosis, 398, 408, 409 consistency-based reconfiguration, 451 consistency condition, 243 consistency problem, 572, 576 consistency restoring rules, 307 constraint all-different, 184 cardinality, 184 channeling, 192 cumulative, 184 global, 183 graph, 191 implied, 185 nogood, 186 propagation, 185

constraint graph, 191 constraint logic programming, 197–199, 815 constraint programming, 181 applications, 202

constraint propagation, 182 constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), 181, 573 constraint suspension, 411 constraints distributed, 201 fuzzy, 194 global, 188 linear Horn, 191 possibilistic, 194 row-convex, 190 semiring, 194 set, 200 soft, 194 temporal, 183, 200 valued, 195 weighted, 194

ZOA, 189

constructive models, 323 context, 38, 63, 216–219, 221, 226, 230, 231,

233, 236, 937 negative, 216, 217, 226, 229 positive, 226, 227, 229

context of a protocol, 638 context-sensitive effect, 688 context-specific independence, 471 continuity, 366 continuity networks, 582 continuous change, 676, 692, 871 continuously changing parameter, 683 contract, 59, 701 control engineering, 438 control formula, 747, 751 control logic, 914, 919 convex hull, 571 convex relations, 580 cooperation, 893 co-operative answering, 780 core belief revision, 347 correlational net, 213 counterexamples, 22, 688, 690 counterfactual statements, 498 cover, 112

CRACK, 139

credibility-limited revision, 347 credulous inference, 242 crisp regions, 571 critical pair, 47 cryptographic protocols, 60

cryptography, 60

CTL, 913

CTL planning goals, 852 cumulative inference relation, 270 cumulativity, 298

cut, 334 cutting, 615 Cyc, 62, 65, 813 CycL, 63

DAML+OIL, 166

database update, 701 datatype, 143, 167 Davis and Putnam method, 24

Davis–Putnam, see DPLL

DD system, 792

DDE, 417 DDNF, 120

de dicto, 891 de re, 891 DEC, 681

decision level, 96 decision-theoretic Golog, 880 deep knowledge, 395 default, 242, 300, 799 closed, 243 open, 243

default-based diagnosis engine, 417 default conditional, 270 exceptional, 271

default logic, 242, 416, 771 computational complexity, 248 constrained, 252 cumulative, 252 decidability, 246 decision methods, 249 expansion, 274 Lukaszewicz, 252 preferences, 252 tractability, 249

default logic extension, 244 default negation, see negation as failure default reasoning, 69, 684, 685, 687, 689 default theory, 243 default value assumption, 719 defeasible logic, 276 defined concept, 141, 163 definite causal theory, 766 definitional extension, 765 definitions in theorem proving, 58 degree of firmness, 341 demodulation, 42

DENDRAL, 617

deontic modalities, 905 dependency constraint statement, 715, 718, 727 dependency directed backtracking, 151, 186 dependency graph, 213, 235 dependency pair method, 41 depth-first search, 66 derived fluents, 696 description logic, 575, 824, 938

design, 401, 454 design of mechanical systems, 384 desire, 896 detectability analysis, 399 determining fluent, 693 diagnosability analysis, 399, 438, 446 diagnosis, 398, 407 diagnosis across time, 423 diagnosis of dynamic systems, 425 diagnostic rule, 395 diagrammatic reasoning, 382 Digital Aristotle, 617 dimension reduction, 612 direct effect, 799 direct influences, 371 direction relations, 566 disconnection calculus, 29 discourse representation structure (DRS), 216,

217, 807 discrete change, 870 discrete event calculus, 681 Discrete Event Calculus Reasoner, 699, 700 discrete-event model, 429 Discretization Principle, 362 discriminability analysis, 446 discriminating test input, 439 discriminative Bayesian network, 494 disjunctive logic programming, 66 disjunctive normal form, 118, 119 distance metric, 570 distance relations, 568 distance system, 568 distributed knowledge, 632

Distribution Axiom, 626

DL system

BACK, 138

CLASSIC, 138

CRACK, 139

DLP, 139

FaCT, 139, 147, 166

FaCT++, 147, 168

K-REP, 138

KL-ONE, 138

KRIS, 139

KRYPTON, 136, 138

LOOM, 138

Pellet, 147, 168

RACE, 139

RACER, 147, 166, 168 DLP, 139

DNF, see disjunctive normal form DOLCE, 939 domain, 9, 556 domain axiom, 409 domain closure assumption, 13, 16, 17, 288 domain constraint statement, 715, 718, 721, 727 domain constraints, 657

domain knowledge, 782, 798 domain theory, 363 domain-specific ontology, 939

DPLL, 92

clause learning, see clause learning iterative, 95

recursive, 92

DPLL method, 21, 24, 30

DRS, 807 Ds values, 367 durational fluent, 718, 720 durative events, 683 dynamic backtracking, 186 dynamic Bayesian network, 472 dynamic epistemic logic, 891 dynamic fluent, 718, 721 dynamic logic, 890, 899 dynamics, 605, 615 dynamics, solid object, 616

E, 63 E, 697, 698, 700 EC, 680 ecosystem modeling, 384 effect axiom, 688, 689 effect constraint, 696 effect of actions, 799 effectively propositional, 809 effectively propositional reasoning solvers, 810 effectivity function, 910 egg cracking, 700

egg-yolk calculus, 571 EL, 162, 163 elaboration tolerance, 369, 684, 689, 696, 699 electronic circuit, 700 electronic circuit example, 372 electronic payment systems, 701 electronic systems, 601 elementary set, 337

EM, 496

emotion, 700 emptiness test, 159 empty clause, 23 enabling fluent, 738 ensconcement, 334 ensconcement-generated revision function, 335 entailment, 5, 10 filtered preferential, 731 preferential, 709

entailment constraints, 574 entropy-based test selection, 444 enumeration of defaults, 249 ENVISION, 601, 614 envisioning, 364, 380 epistemic actions, 891 epistemic disjunction, 287 epistemic entrenchment, 325 epistemic logic, 60, 891 epistemic state, 343 epistemic status, 257 epistemic value, 325 epistemological characteristics, 709 epistemology, 621 EPR solvers, 810 equality axioms, 37 equational system, 43 equivalence, 5, 10, 141 equivalence of EC and DEC, 683 E-RES, 699, 700 E-unification algorithm, 54 evaluation, 617 event, 601, 671 event calculus, 671, 810 event calculus answer set programming, 699 event calculus applications, 700 event calculus planner, 699 event calculus reasoning, 681, 699 event calculus versions, 672 event effect, 688 event occurrence, 674 event token, 674 event type, 674 event with duration, 683 exceptions, 63 execution as model building, 905 execution monitoring, 881 execution tree, 845, 852 existential graph (EG), 213, 215, 216, 218, 223,

236

existential restriction, 136, 140 exogenous actions, 872 expansion stable, 256 strongly grounded, 274

expectation maximization, 496 experiential knowledge, 395 expert system, 66, 395, 929 explanation, 61 explanation closure, 710, 712 explicit beliefs, 330 explicit definition, 5, 13, 14 exploiting structure, 64 expressiveness/tractability tradeoff, 367 extended rewriting system, 51 extension, 140 default logic, 243 existence of, 252

extensional, 561, 890 extensions of rewrite rules, 52 extra-logical factors, 323 extraneous event, 684 extraneous event effects, 685 FaCT, 139, 147, 166 FaCT++, 147, 168 factoring, 31 failure-modes-and-effects analysis, 401, 456 faithful assignment, 351 falling object example, 692 fat-tailed distribution, 113 fault detectability, 446 fault detection, 398, 409 fault diagnosis and isolation, 438 fault identification, 399, 415 fault localization, 399, 410 fault model, 413 FDIV bug, 60

feature, 713, 725 features and fluents, 686, 709 field ontologies, 374 filtering, 686 finite domain propositional logic, 762 finite-size scaling, 111 finite symbolic value systems, 366 finitely controllable theories, 22 first-order logic, 67, 685, 700 first-order meta-language, 890 first principles, 395 fixed point, 244, 252

fixed-point logic, 241

Fixedpoint Axiom for common knowledge, 631

fixed slot allocation schema, 787 FL0, 162, 163

flattening of terms, 52 fluent, 599, 649, 671, 713, 714, 870 durational, 718, 720 dynamic, 718, 721 enabling, 738 persistent, 718, 720

fluent dependency constraint, see dependency constraint statement

FMEA, 401, 456

folk psychology, 888 forest model, 147 forgetting, 874 formal verification, 60 formula control, 747, 751

TAL, see L(NDforward checking, 185 foundational approach, 330 foundational ontology, 939 frame axiom, 653 FrameNet, 814 frame of reference, 566 frame problem, 69, 70, 72, 240, 303, 653, 684,

710, 715, 759 frames, 138 free-fall motion, 692

free variable, 8 free variables in a clause, 28 FROB, 607, 614

full invariance property, 38, 49 full meet contraction function, 324 full mereogeometry, 570 full observability, 845, 847, 850 full set, 247, 259 function constant, 8 function variable, 16 functional fluent, 649 fusion operator, 559 fuzzy qualitative values, 367

G+DE, 435

GALEN ontology, 168 game theory, 888, 910 GARP, 367

GCI, 140

GDE, 410

GDE+, 414, 418 Gelernter’s geometry prover, 37 Gene Ontology, 165 general diagnosis engine, 410

Generalization Rule for common knowledge,

630 Generalization Rule for knowledge, 627 generalized diagnosis engine, 435 generalized quantifier, 234 generating defaults, 244, 247 generative Bayesian network, 494 genericity of models, 406 geographic information systems, 383 geometry, 569 goal, 700 goal narrative, 748 goal-sensitivity of a prover, 37 Golog, 877 Golog language, 906 gradual change, 692 granularity of models, 407 ground, 28 ground reducibility, 57 ground resolution, 24 grounded model, 266 grounded semantics, 904 groundedness, 243, 247

Halo, 617

HAMMR, 59

Handbook of Automated Reasoning, 22 HAPPS, 66 hardware bug, 60 hardware description languages, 60 hardware verification, 59, 60 Harper Identity, 322 heat flow example, 373

heavy-tailed distribution, 113 Herbrand interpretation, 28 Herbrand’s theorem, 29 heterogeneous distance system, 568 heuristic value ordering, 186 variable ordering, 186

hierarchical event, 683 hierarchical model, 421 high-level programming, 877 high-level robotic control, 869

high-level specifications, 489

High-Performance Knowledge Bases, 62 higher-order concepts, 63 higher-order logic, 60, 218, 235 Hintikka set, 160 history, 614 hitting set, 412 HOL prover, 22, 56 Holds, 728 homogeneous distance system, 568

Horn clauses, 36, 65, 66, 189

Horn form, 66

HPKB, 62, 65 HTTP, 827 human intervention, 58 humanoid robot, 701 hybrid model, 431 hybrid temporal logic, see temporal logic, hybrid

hyper-resolution strategy, 35 Hypertext Transfer Protocol, 827 Hypothesis-Text, 806 hypothetical action, 671

I+, 371 I, 371

ideal reasoner, 318 idealization, 599 ideally rational agent, 254 IMPACT system, 905 implementability, 902 implication graph, 97 implied action preconditions, 768 incision function, 332 incomplete search strategy, 66 indefinite location, 572 Independence postulate, 346 indexical, 234 indirect effects, 694, 699, 711, 735, 799 chains, 711, 737

indirect influences, 375 induction, 70

Induction Rule for common knowledge, 631 inductionless induction, 57

inductive epistemic entrenchment, 337 inductive logic programming, 70 industrial application, 458 inertia, 69, 799 inertia assumption, 715, 719

using a nochange axiom, 721

inference, 195 inference engine, 798 inference relation, 267 inference rule, 6, 14 infinite domains, 573 infinite loop, 672, 699 influence, 435, 601 information attitudes, 889 Information extraction based approach, 782 information extraction systems, 810

inheritance networks, 276 initial state

in TAL, 723 in TALplanner, 751

input clause, 33 input resolution, 36 instance, 29, 140

with respect to KB, 142

instance-based methods, 29 integer time, 674, 679, 681, 683, 692, 698 integrity constraints, 349 Intel, 60 intelligent tutoring systems, 386 intention filter, 894 intention logic, 891, 893 intention side effects, 894 intentional system, 888 intentions, 803, 896 interaction laws, 745 inter-modal consistency, 899

Interoperable Knowledge Language (IKL), 223,

231–233, 235 interpretation, 4, 9, 140 intersection, 899 interval algebra, 191, 200, see temporal structures, intervals

interval arithmetic, 368 interval calculus, 551 interval temporal logics, see temporal logic, interval

intervention, 497 intrusive testing, 444 intuitionistic encoding, 574 inverse method of theorem proving, 19

invocation condition, 897 IRMA system, 897

irrelevance of syntax postulate, 320

Isabelle, 22, 60 ISP, 60 iterated revision, 340 joint consistency of extensions, 252 jointly exhaustive and pairwise disjoint (JEPD),

556 jointree, 476 justification, 243

Karlsruhe Interactive Verificer, 60

KARO logic, 891, 899 K-consequence, 259 k-consistency, 577 kernel contraction, 331 kernel diagnosis, 415, 419 KIDS, 59, 61 kinematics, 382, 603, 615 KIV, 60

KL-ONE, 138 knowledge, 872

and time, 635–637 Knowledge Axiom, 627 knowledge base, 141 knowledge-based programs, 639–643 knowledge-based system, 929 knowledge compilation, 483 knowledge elicitation, 941 knowledge engineering, 929 Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF), 217 knowledge level, 929 knowledge pre-conditions, 891 knowledge producing actions, 891 knowledge role, 934

Konolige’s translation, 273

K-REP, 138

Kripke model, 254

Kripke structure, 623, 890

KRIS, 139

Kruskal’s tree theorem, 39, 49 KRYPTON, 136, 138

L(FL), 710, 728 foundational axioms Γfnd, 732 predicates, 728 temporal structure axioms Γtime, 732 L(ND), 710, 715, 725 =ˆ , 715, 721, 725, 726 action occurrence statement, 723, 727,

728, 731 action term, 725 action type specification, 718, 721, 727,

728 application formula, 727 balanced change formula, 727 change formula, 726 constant, 725 dependency constraint statement, 715,

718, 727 domain constraint statement, 715, 718,

721, 727

elementary fluent formula, 721, 726 fixed fluent formula, 721, 726, 728 fluent change formula (CT ), 726 fluent formula, 721, 726 fluent term, 725 interval reassignment formula (I), 722,

726 isvalue expression, 726 observation statement, 715, 723, 727 occlusion formula (X), 722, 726 occurrence formula, 727 persistence formula, 727 persistence statement, 718, 719, 727, 731 reassignment, 722 reassignment formula (R), 722, 726

sorts, 725 statements, 727 static formula, 726 temporal formula, 726 temporal term, 725 timed formula, 726 translation to L(FL), 728 value, 725 value domain, 713 boolean, 719, 725

value formula, 726 value term, 725 variable, 725

vocabulary, 718

L(SD), 710

Lagrangian methods, 107 lambda calculus, 784 landmark introduction, 368 landmark values, 368 laws of interaction, 745 lazy unfolding, 150 LCC QA system, 790 LCC-style Logic Forms, 786 learning actions, 892 learning Bayesian networks, 493 learning scheme, 99

1UIP, 100 2UIP, 100 decision, 99 FirstNewCut, 100 FirstUIP, 100 nondeterministic, 99 non-redundant, 104

left logical equivalence, 270 legislation, 701 Levi Identity, 322 lexicographic path ordering, 40, 48 light example, 673, 675, 677, 681, 682, 694, 698 Limit Assumption, 328 limit hypotheses, 380 limit points, 367

linear belief base revision functions, 334 linear Horn, 191 linear programming, 188

Linear Temporal Logic, see Temporal logic, linear

linear time, 671 linear time structures, 714 lines, 554

Link Grammar, 804 liquids, 608, 614 literal, 23 literals of resolution, 31 Livingstone, 431 LLF, 786, 794 local confluence, 47 local consistency, 577 local search, 107, 187 Logic-Based Subsumption Architecture, 62 Logic Form based approach, 782 logic forms in information extraction, 783 logic program, 70 logic programming, 65, 197, 198, 687, 699 constraint logic programming, 197

logical omniscience, 643 logically omniscient, 318 logically valid formula, 10 logicism, 67

LOOM, 138

loop formulas, 297 looping automaton, 158

MABLE system, 908 machine learning, 70 maintaining arc consistency, 185 manipulation, 607 many-sorted logic, 700 map graphs, 581 Markov Chain Monte Carlo, see MCMC matings method of theorem proving, 20 maxichoice contraction, 325 maximal tractable subset, 578

MCMC, 121

constraint, 370 measurement proposal, 399, 438 memoryless plan, 846 mental models, 387 mental states, 888 mereogeometry, 570 mereology, 557 mereotopology, 555, 558 message understanding conferences, 810 message understanding system, 61 meta-language, 890 metalanguage, 215, 217, 230, 232, 233, 237 MetateM system, 905 metonymy, 62

metric diagram, 382 microworld, 615 minimal conflict, 411 minimal diagnosis, 415 minimal extensional mereology, 557 minimal-model change frameworks, 376 minimizing belief sets, 255 minimum description length, 497

MiniWordnet, 808 (ML)2, 935 modal consequence, 254 modal encoding, 574 modal-free, 253 modal logic, 253, 890 nonmonotonic, 773

modal theory, 253 mode assignment, 408 mode change, 427 model, 5, 10, 398 model building, 905 model checking, 908 bounded, 89 unbounded, 117

model coherence, 377 model compilation, 420 model composition, 406 model constraints, 574

Model counter, 121 c2d, 120 Cachet, 120

MBound, 121

Relsat, 120 model counting, 120, 483 model elimination method, 36 model elimination strategy, 20 model evolution method, 29 model formulation, 363, 376 model formulation, polynomial time algorithm,

378 model formulation algorithms, 378 model fragments, 363, 376 model hypothesis, 439 model library, 396, 404, 409, 459 model preference logic, 241 model theory, 217, 236 Common Logic, 217, 218, 222 conceptual graph, 217 existential graph, 217

IKL, 233

NGM, 233

RDF(S) and OWL, 222, 235

Z specification notation, 222 model-based problem solving, 395, 402 model-based reasoning, 395, 403 model-based system, 395 Model-It, 385 modeling, 403

modeling assumptions, 377 modeling methodology, 459 modular structure, 64 Modular-E, 699 modularity, 699 modules, 64 Modus Ponens, 626 monotony, 268 most general unifier, 30 motion planning, 61 multiple contraction, 336 multiple extension problem, 69 multiple models, 611 multiple revision, 336 multiset, 38

Munich Rent Advisor, 66

naive geography, 553 naive physics, 71, 614 named-entity tagging, 789 narrative, 671, 709 goal, 748 language, see L(NDpartitions, 716 plan, 748

narrative background specification, 716, 718 narrative comprehension, 701 narrative specification, 716, 723

narrative statement, 716

NASA, 59

natural deduction, 6, 14, 227, 229 natural language processing, 73 natural language semantics, role of qualitative modeling, 387

natural language understanding, 700 near-propositional, 809 negation as failure, 66, 287, 687 negation normal form, 147 negative clause, 35 negative introspection, 254 Negative Introspection Axiom, 627 negative literal, 35

nested graph model (NGM), 233 Newman’s lemma, 47 NEWTON, 607, 608, 614

nicely ordered partition, 337 nochange axiom, 721 nogood, 186 no-good, 97 noisy sensors, 872 nominal, 143, 155 nondeterminism, 693 nondeterministic actions, 768 nondeterministic effects, 693 nonmonotonic inference relation, 267 nonmonotonic reasoning, 69, 239, 353 nonmonotonic spatial logics, 572

non-prioritized belief revision, 346

NORA, 59

normal default theory, 249 normal form in rewriting, 47 normative attitudes, 889 NP-complete, 89, 91 NqTHM, 20, 57, 60

number restriction, 142 Nutcracker system, 806

object constant, 8 object identity, 700 Object Semantic Representation, 793, 796 object variable, 8 obligations, 889 observation statement, 715, 723, 727

Observe, 723

Occam’s razor, 415

Occlude, 716, 724, 728 circumscription, 730

occlusion, 716 Occurs, 728

OEC, 672

Offline Robot Programming, 877

OIL, 166

Omega prover, 22 Online Robot Programming, 879 only-knowing, 276 OntoClean, 941 Ontolingua, 938 ontological characteristics, 709 ontological commitment, 941 ontologies, 62 ontology, 371, 554, 936 domain-specific, 939 foundational, 939 part–whole, 939 specification language, 937 task-specific, 940 time, 939

ontology engineering, 940 ontology language, 824

DAML+OIL, 166

OIL, 166

OWL, 166

open default theory, 243 open-world knowledge, 875 open-world semantics, 831, 834 opportunity, 900 optimization, 59 optimization techniques, 150 absorption, 150 backjumping, 151 dependency directed backtracking, 151 order-consistent logic programs, 294

order of magnitude, absolute representations,

369 order of magnitude, relative representations, 369 order of magnitude calculus, 570 order of magnitude representations, 369 ordered paramodulation, 42 ordered resolution, 36 ordinal conditional function, 341 ordinal epistemic entrenchments function, 342

orientation, 566 original event calculus, 672, 699

OSHL prover, 29

OSR, 793, 796 Otter, 20, 62 overcommitment, 896

OWL, 166, 218, 222, 235, 824, 831

DL, 166, 167

Full, 166

Lite, 166, 167

OWL DLP, 834 OWL Web Ontology Language, 938

package contraction, 339

PARADOX, 62, 810

parametric design, 401 parametric structure, 479 paramodulation, 41 parity constraint, 121 parse tree, 783 part, 557 part–whole relations, 939 parthood, 557

partial meet base-generated revision functions,

334 partial meet belief base contraction function,

331 partially ordered events, 696 partitioning, 65

PASCAL, 806

path-consistency algorithm, 577

path-consistent, 577

PDE, 435

Pellet, 147, 168

PENG, 62 Pentium bug, 60 perfect information, 916 perfect recall, 634, 900, 918 permissions, 889 persistence, 69 persistence of mode, 426 persistence statement, 718, 719, 727, 731 persistent fluent, 718, 720 persistent goal, 895 P-Goal, 895 phase transition, 109 physical impossibility, 414

physical negation, 414 place vocabulary, 382 plan, 700, 842, 844 plan library, 897 plan narrative, 748

planar realizability, 581 planning, 61, 89, 117, 447, 701, 802, 841, 876 planning domain, 842, 843 planning for temporally extended goals, 850 planning goal, 842, 845 planning problem, 845 planning system, 61 planning under partial observability, 859 plateau, 108

PMON, 710

PMON-RC, 711 PMON+, 711

point algebra, 191, 200 polarity constraints, 580 Poole default, 250 positive clause, 35 positive conflict, 411 positive formula, 685 positive introspection, 254 Positive Introspection Axiom, 627 positive literal, 35 possibilistic logic, 276 Possibility Theory, 353 possible conflict, 421 possible-world structure, 256 possible-worlds semantics, 623 PowerAnswer, 790 poverty conjecture, 552 practical possibility, 901 practical reasoning, 897 pre-conditions, 892 precedence ordering, 39 precondition, 689 preconvex relations, 580 predicate fixed, 263 minimized, 262 varied, 262

predicate completion, 685, 710, 731 predicate constant, 8 predicate ordering, 62 preference logic, 269 preferences, 194 preferential entailment, 709 filtered, 731

preferential extension, 271 preferential inference relation, 269, 270 preferential model, 269 preferred diagnosis, 416 prenex form, 117 prerequisite, 243 prerequisite-free default, 250

primary object, 566 prime implicant, 412 primitive concept, 141, 163 primitive fluents, 696 principle of minimal change, 318 priority consistency condition, 334 pro-attitudes, 889 probabilistic beliefs, 469 probabilistic independence, 470 probe section, 445 probing, 444 problem-solving method, 930 assessment, 933 propose-and-revise, 930

procedural attachment, 234 Procedural Reasoning System, 897 process, 601 process diagnosis engine, 435 process ontology, 373 process-oriented diagnosis, 434 process-oriented modeling, 433 process-oriented therapy, 453, 454 Processable English, 62 program analysis, 59 program verification, 59 programming-based representations, 491 programming language, 903

Progression, 873

Projection, 873

Prolog, 61, 65, 672, 699, 897 Prolog technology theorem prover, 20 proof checker, 59 proof complexity, 100 proof system, 100 CL, see clause learning proofs cutting planes, 105 natural, 103 proper, 103 refinement, 103 RES, see resolution resolution, see resolution

propagation-based predictor, 420 proper knowledge bases, 875 property, 671 property And, 268 property Or, 268 proposition, 217, 227, 230–232 Propositional Axiom, 626 propositional connectives, 4 propositional formula, 4, 91 propositional proof complexity, see proof complexity

Protégé, 168 PROTEIN, 59

protocols, 60 Prover9, 20 PRS, 897 pseudo-Boolean, 105 pseudo-Boolean solver Galena, 105 pbChaff, 105 PBS, 105

PSPACE-complete, 89, 118 PTTP, 59, 61

pure literal, 93

PVS, 60

QA system, 779

QA3, 61

QBF, 117, 153

QBF solver

Decide, 118

Duaffle, 119

Evaluate, 118

QBDD, 118

QMRES, 118

QRSat, 118

Quaffle, 118

Quantor, 118

QuBE, 118 Semprop, 118 sKizzo, 118

WalkQSAT, 118 qc-space, 616 QP, 602, 614

q-resolution, 118

QSIM, 367, 614 QSR, 793, 794

qualification, 689 strong, 740 weak, 740

qualification problem, 660, 689, 711, 715, 737 qualified number restriction, 143 qualitative boundary description, 569 qualitative derivatives, 371 qualitative differential equations, 371 qualitative mathematics, 365 qualitative model, 407 qualitative modeling, 361 for decision support, 384 for education, 385 for virtual reality, 386

qualitative orientation representations, 382 qualitative physics, 361 qualitative process theory, 373 qualitative proportionality, 370

qualitative proportionality, causal interpretation,

375 qualitative reasoning, 597 qualitative representations, 551 qualitative shape representations, 382 qualitative simulation, 364

qualitative simulation, completeness and correctness of, 381

qualitative simulation, finiteness, 379 qualitative spatial reasoning, 381, 551 qualitative spatial representation, 551 qualitative state, 364 qualitative states, relation to classical state spaces, 379 Quantified Boolean formula, see QBF quantifier elimination, 710, 712 quantity space, 367 quasi-ordering, 49 Quasi-Semantic Representation, 793, 794 quasi-statics, 607, 610 question answering system, 61, 779

RACE, 139 RACER, 147, 166, 168 ramification, 694

ramification problem, 657, 694, 711, 715, 735,

759 relation to qualification problem, 742 Ramsey Test, 319 random 2-SAT, 111 random 3-SAT, 109 random k-SAT, 109 randomization, 187 randomization and restarts, 95, 115 ranked knowledge bases, 276 ranked order, 270 rapid restarts, 115 rational agent, 888 rational balance, 893 rational choice, 893 rational closure, 271 rational extension, 271 rational inference relation, 270 rational monotony, 270 rationality, 901 rationality principle, 289

RCC, 564

RCC8, 381

RDF, 166, 218, 222, 235, 823 RDF Schema, 824

reachability, 16

Reactive Modules language, 913 realizability, 581, 903 realizing (an ABox), 137 reasoning about action, 353 reasoning about action and change, 671, 709 correctness, 709 epistemological characteristics, 709 ontological characteristics, 709

reasoning about intentions, 803 Recognizing Textual Entailment, 806 reconfiguration, 402, 447

recovery, 402 recovery postulate, 321 recursive path ordering, 48 red and green light example, 677 redex, 45 reducible, 45 reference object, 566 refinement method, 580 refinements of resolution, 33 reflexivity, 268 refutation, 24

Region Based Geometry, 570 Region Connection Calculus (RCC), 564 regression, 664, 873 regular plan, 850 regular region, 555 reification, 13 Reiter’s foundational axioms, 661 relation, 556 relational Bayesian networks, 492 relational fluents, 649 relationally screened revision, 347 relationship of EC and DEC, 682, 683 relationship of event calculus and situation calculus, 684

relationship of event calculus and temporal action logics, 684

relaxation, 188 relaxed answering, 780 release from commonsense law of inertia, 676 Relevance Principle, 362 remedial action, 402, 448 remedy, 446, 449 repair, 402 replacement of components, 447 replacement property, 38, 49 representation result, 320, 326 ResearchCyc, 63 resolution, 19, 101, 197 general, 101 regular, 101, 103 symmetric, 106 tree-like, 101

resolution based approach, 155 resolution proof, 24, 32 resolution refutation, 32 resolution theorem proving, 61, 70 resolvent, 24, 31 Resource Description Framework, 823

restarts, 187 restriction existential, 136, 140 number, 142, 154 qualified number, 143 value, 136, 140

rewrite relation, 44 right weakening, 268 rippling, 57

Robbins problem, 20, 21, 43 robot control, 62 robot motion planning, 61 robotic navigation, 553, 583 robotics, 61 role

inverse, 143, 155 name, 140 sub-, 143 transitive, 143, 154

rolling a die example, 693 rough location, 572 RTE, 806

rules of inference

Frege’s, 214, 227, 228

Gentzen’s, 227, 229, 230, 235

Peirce’s, 217, 226, 227, 229, 230 rules with exceptions, 240 run, 158 runs and systems model, 633–635

Russian Airplane Hijack Scenario, 716–718

S4 Axioms, 628

S5, 891, 899 S5 Axioms, 628

safe contraction, 331

SAT, see Boolean satisfiability problem

SAT solver, 89, 574, 700 BerkMin, 94 complete, 92 Grasp, 95 GSAT, 107 incomplete, 107 Jerusat, 94, 95

MiniSat, 94, 95

Relsat, 99

RSat, 94 Sato, 94 sEqSatz, 106 SymChaff, 106

UnitWalk, 109 Walksat, 108 zChaff, 94

satisfaction, 5, 10

satisfiability, see SAT, 141 in ALC, 161

satisfiability modulo theories, 55 satisfiability solver, see SAT solver satisfiable formula, 5, 10 satisfying assignment, 91 SBP, see symmetry breaking predicate scenario, 709 scenario descriptions, 363 Schaefer’s dichotomy theorem, 189 scheduling, 202

screened revision, 346 search

backjumping, 186 branch and bound, 195 branching strategy, 185 conflict-directed backjumping, 186 dependency-directed backtracking, 186 depth-first, 184 dynamic backtracking, 186 forward checking, 185 local, 187 maintaining arc consistency, 185 randomization and restarts, 187

search for diagnoses, 420 search operator, 880 search strategy, 66

SEC, 674

second-order logic, 685 selection functions, 323 self-explanatory simulators, 386 semantic attachment, 725, 750 semantic networks, 138, 213 semantic relations, 788 semantic representation, 793 semantic resolution strategy, 35 semantic tableau method, 36 Semantic Web, 62, 222, 223, 235, 823 semi-monotonicity, 250, 252 semi-revision, 348 sensing actions, 871 sensitivity analysis, 489 sentence, 9 sentence contraction, 339 sentence-reducible, 338 sentence revision, 336 sequence-constraint, 424 sequential plan, 857 sequent, 6 set contraction, 339 set of clauses, 28 set of support strategy, 35 Setheo, 59

S-expansion, 258 Shakey, 61 shallow knowledge, 395 shape, 569 SHERLOCK, 417

SHIN, 167 SHIQ, 167

SHOIN, 167

side effects, 711, 735 chains, 711, 737

sign algebra, 366 sign calculus, 601 signature, 4, 8 simplification ordering, 39 simplified event calculus, 674 simulation-based diagnosis, 426 situated automata, 906 situation, 217, 230–232, 649, 898 situation assessment, 398, 436 situation calculus, 649, 650, 684, 870 size of spatial region, 568 skeptical inference, 242 sketch maps, 383 sketch understanding, 383 Skolem function, 26 skolemization, 118

SKOS, 939 smodels, 699, 700 SMODELS, 798 smoothness, 269 snap-scan, 582 snapshots, 582 SNARK, 59, 61, 65 SNOMED, 165

social choice, 920 soft constraint propagation, 196 software agents, 887 software debugging, 456 software development, 59 software verification, 59, 60 sole mechanism assumption, 375 solid objects, 603 solution counting, see model counting

sort, 10 sorted logic, 700 soup bowl example, 760, 764 SP, see survey propagation space, 700 Spass, 59, 63 Spatial Aggregation Language, 374 spatial analogies, 383 spatial change, 581 spatial data mining, 384 spatial modal logic, 574 spatial points, 554 spatial reasoning, 572 spatial regions, 554 spatial relations, 556 spatial semantic hierarchy, 583 spatial vagueness, 571 spatio-temporal representation, 582

specification language, 903

SPIDER, 60

splitting in theorem proving, 36 SRI, 61 stable model semantics, 66 STAR algebra, 567 state-based diagnosis, 424 state constraint, 425, 689, see domain constraint statement

state constraints, 761, 802

state transitions, finding, 380 statics, 607, 609 statistical learning techniques, 73 statistical physics, 111, 112 status abstraction, 366 Stickel, 59 stimulus, 439 stochastic local search, see local search stochastic sampling, 485 stochastic situation calculus, 871 story understanding, 701 strategic ability, 909 strategic structure of environment, 888 strategy, 913, 915 strategy scheduling, 20 strategy selection, 20 stratified logic programs, 293 streamlining, 121 STRIPS, 61, 876 strong cyclic planning, 847 strong equivalence, 299, 765 strong exception, 301 strong planning, 845 strong qualification, 740 structural approach, 161 structural induction, 57 structural subset, 899 structural subsumption algorithm, 138, 155, 161 structural superset, 899 structure, 9 structure relations, 568 structured inheritance networks, 138 subformula renaming, 700 subsets of resolution, 31 subsort, 11 substitutable term, 9 substitution, 9, 28 subsumption, 33, 137, 141 hierarchy, 137 in EL, 163, 165 in FL0, 162, 163

structural algorithm, 138, 155

subtheories, 65 subworld, 899 successor state axiom, 656, 663

successor states, 915

SUMO, 939

supernormal default, 250 supervaluation theory, 571 supplementary AGM postulates for contraction,

321 supplementary AGM postulates for revision,

319 survey propagation, 111 Swoop, 168 symmetry, 193 symmetry breaking, 104, 193 symmetry breaking predicate, 105 synchronous, 636 synchronous systems, 918 syntactic structure, 783 system of spheres, 327 system Z, 271

tableau algorithm, 138 tableau based approach, 146 tableau expansion rules, 148

TACITUS, 61

TAL, 709, see L(ND)

circumscription policy, 731 formula, see L(NDstatement, see L(+ND)

TAL 1.0 (PMON ), 711

TAL 2.0, 711

TAL-C, 711

TAL-Q, 711

VITAL research tool, 713 TALplanner, 712, 747 task-specific ontology, 940 task types, 930 tautology, 5, 33

TBox, 136, 140, 166 definitorial, 141, 149, 154, 163 general, 161, 163, 165

template-based representations, 490 temporal action logics, 684, see TAL temporal arguments, 522 temporal diagnosis, 424 temporal intervals, see temporal structures, intervals

temporal logic, 60, 890 alternating, 526

ATL, 527 automated deduction, 529, 532 branching, 525 classical logic representation, 522

CTL, 526

density, 522 Duration Calculus, 524, 525 first-order, 528 monodic, 528

hybrid, 524, 528 interval, 518, 519, 523 ITL, 523 linear, 520

LTL, 520 modal representation, 520 axiom systems, 529

past-time, 521 propositional, 515

QPTL, 527

quantification over paths, 525 quantification over propositions, 527 real-time, 524 reified, 521

TLA, 531

Temporal Logic of Actions, see temporal logic,

TLA

temporal reasoning, 62 automated deduction, 529, 532 Chronolog, 532 in agent-based systems, 527 in model checking, 532 in natural language, 530 in probabilistic model checking, 535 in PSL/Sugar, 534 in reactive systems specification, 531 in temporal data mining, 535 in temporal databases, 535 in temporal description logics, 534

METATEM, 532

proof systems, 529 Templog, 532

Tempura, 532 temporal structures, 514 automata representation, 517 branching, 714 density, 516 discreteness, 515 first-order representation, 516

granularity, 516 in TAL, 714 intervals, 514, 518, 519, 523 linear, 714 linearity, 517 organisation, 517 real-time, 517 timed automata, 517

tense, 701 term, 8 term indexing, 21 term-rewriting system, 44 terminating rewrite system, 46 termination orderings, 38 test, 438 test generation, 399, 439 test input, 439 testing, 444 theorem prover, 59 theorem proving applications, 58 theory base, 330 theory of a model, 256 theory of a possible world structure, 257 theory of mind, 888 therapy, 402 thermostat example, 691 three containers example, 363 threshold satisfiability, 111 time ontology, 939 time period, 672

timepoint, 674 time points, 898 time scales in modeling, 379 token ordering graph, 569 TopBraid Composer, 168 topological distance, 582 topological primitive, 559

topological qualitative spatial representations,

381 topology, 558 total envisionment, 380 TPS prover, 20

TPTP, 699, 700 TPTP problem set, 21, 22 tractable subset, 578 trafficability, 383 trajectory axiom, 692 Trans, 728 transformational development, 60 transformational rules, 60 transition-based diagnosis, 427 transitive closure, 3, 15, 17 transitive relational partial meet contraction function, 324

translation based approach, 156

travel module, 798 TREC, 792

tree automaton, 158 tree clustering, 476 tree language, 159 tree model property, 157 treewidth, 475 trigger axiom, 691 triggered event, 691 triples, 824, 829 truth values, 4 truthful information transfer, 892 turn-based synchronous systems, 914 Tweety, 68 type, 559

U notation, 687 UIP, see unique implication point uncertain beliefs, 467 undercommitment, 896 unfolding, 149 lazy, 150

unifiable, 30 unification, 19, 30, 66, 197

Unified Modeling Language (UML), 223 unifier, 30 uniform formulas, 662 uniform strategies, 917 unique implication point, 100 unique name assumption, 12, 834 unique names axiom, 687

unit clause, 23 unit preference strategy, 34 unit propagation, 93, 185 unit resolution, 34, 36 Universal Causation Logic, 773 universal closure, 9 universal relation, 556 Universal Resource Identifier, 824, 828 universe, 9 unobservable planning domain, 857 unraveling, 147, 157 URI, 824, 828

vagueness, 571 valid formula, 624 value restriction, 136, 140 value space, 368 Vampire, 20, 21, 62, 63 variable elimination, 475 variable resolution representations, 367

variable selection heuristic, 93

BOHM, 94 DLIS, 94

MOMS, 94

VSIDS, 94

variational methods, 486 vehicle routing, 202

VEL, 684

verification, 59, 60, 89, 907 verification language, 903 verification of protocols, 60 versatile event logic, 684 VisiGarp, 385 vision, 700 visual languages, 554

VITAL, 713

VLSI, 60 VModel, 385 vocabulary, 4

TAL, 718

voice recognition, 73

Waldmeister system, 43 walking example, 695, 696 watched literals, 94 water tank, 700 weak composition, 576 weak exception, 300 weak qualification, 740 weak supplementation principle (WSP), 557 Web infrastructure, 827 Web Ontology Language, 824, 831 well-designed system, 398, 410, 422 well-foundedness, 38 well-ordered, 337

well-ranked, 337

WHISPER, 616

wishes, 902 word automaton, 163 WordNet, 787, 797, 939 word senses, 787, 797 work process, 459 workflow, 701 world, 898 World Wide Web, 821

XCL, 218, 222

XML, 166, 218, 235 XML Schema, 167

XOR constraint, 121

Yale shooting problem, 69, 72

Yale Shooting Problem, 653, 731

Yale shooting scenario, 686

Z specification notation, 218, 222, 235 ZenoTravel planning domain, 749 zoo world, 700

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